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2014 06 23 Public Hearing 503 First Reading Ordinance 2014-13 Billboard/EMC Code Amendments COMMISSION AGENDA Informational Consent ITEM 503 Public Hearin s X g Regular June 23, 2014 KS RS Regular Meeting City Manager Department REQUEST: The Community Development Department — Planning Division requests the City Commission consider first reading of Ordinance 2014-13, which proposes to amend the City's regulations regarding off-premises signs, commonly referred to as billboards, and electronic message centers. SYNOPSIS: On March 10, 2014, the City Commission approved Ordinance 2013-11, which amended Section 16-77 of the Code of Ordinances to permit the reconstruction of billboards that are located only along the U.S. 17-92 corridor into digital billboards which utilize electronic message display technology. Ordinance 2014-13 proposes to amend Ordinance 2013-11 to permit the reconstruction of billboards along the U.S. 17-92 corridor on other properties abutting U.S. 17-92 which are under the same ownership as the property upon which the existing billboard in currently located. Additionally, Ordinance 2014-13 proposes to amend Section 16-81 of the Code of Ordinances, regarding electronic message center signs. This amendment proposes to reduce hold times from eight (8) seconds to two (2) seconds when static messages transition to another image, and proposes to amend transition methods and transition times for messages on electronic message center signs. CONSIDERATIONS: APPLICANT AND PROPERTY INFORMATION: . Applicant name and address and authorized representative: City of Winter Springs, Public Hearings 503 PAGE 1 OF 6-June 23,2014 1126 East State Road 434, Winter Springs, FL 32708. . Pro�ert� owner's name(sl: Not applicable . Property addresses: Not applicable . Pro�erty Parcel ID numbers: Not applicable . Current FLUM Desi�nations: Not applicable . Current Zonin�Desi�nations: Not applicable • Previously Approved Development permits such as conditional use, waiver, or variance if an�l: Not applicable . Development A�reements (if any�: Not applicable . Pendin� Code Enforcement Actions (if any): Not applicable . City Liens (if any): Not applicable APPLICABLE LAW, PUBLIC POLICY, AND EVENTS Florida Statutes 163.2511-163.3246: (Provides that land development regulations for municipal planning be consistent with the Comprehensive Plan). Florida Statute 166.041 Procedures for adoption of ordinances and resolutions. Winter Springs Charter Article IV. Governing Body. Section 4.06. General powers and duties. Section 4.15. Ordinances in General. City of Winter Springs Comprehensive Plan Winter Springs Code of Ordinances, Chapter 16 signs, Section 16-77 - outdoor display/billboards - off-premises signs prohibited Winter Springs Code of Ordinances, Chapter 16 signs, Section 16-81 - Changeable copy signs; electronic message centers. DISCUS SION: BILLBOARDS Ordinance 2013-11 amended Section 16-77 of the Code of Ordinances to permit the reconstruction of existing billboards that are located only along the U.S. 17-92 corridor into digital billboards which utilize electronic message display technology. Currently, there are two existing billboards located on U.S. 17-92: 1) the southeast corner of the intersection of U.S. 17-92 and Shepard Road, and 2) the recently approved Racetrac site, which permitted an existing billboard to be raised to a higher height by an approved Annexation Agreement. The City is currently negotiating a request to reconstruct a legally non-conforming billboard into a digital billboard with electronic message display technology that is located on the U.S. 17-92 corridor. This billboard is located at the southeast corner of the intersection of U.S. 17-92 and Shepard Road. It is currently held up by six (6) wooden poles and was constructed prior to the advent of electronic message display technology. The parcel where the existing billboard is located has overhead power lines that will prevent the reconstruction of the billboard on the same parcel. Due to this issue, the property owner has Public Hearings 503 PAGE 2 OF 6-June 23,2014 indicated a desire to reconstruct the billboard on an adjacent parcel which abuts U.S. 17-92 that is under the same ownership. This parcel does not have interference issues with overhead power lines, and will permit the reconstruction of the billboard in accordance with all criteria that was adopted in Ordinance 2013-11. In addition, the relocation will place the base of the billboard behind a 6-foot tall fence thereby concealing the base of the structure from the view of passing motorists. In an effort to resolve this situation and provide certain options for the billboard property owners and the City, Ordinance 2014-13 proposes to amend Ordinance 2013-11 to permit the reconstruction of billboards along the U.S. 17-92 corridor on other property abutting U.S. 17-92 which is under the same ownership as the property upon which the existing billboard in currently located, provided the relocation of a billboard more adequately promotes the visual aesthetics and safety of vehicular traffic along the U.S. 17-92 corridor. ELECTRONIC MESSAGE CENTERS (EMC) Ordinance 2014-13 proposes to amend Section 16-81 of the Code of Ordinances, regarding electronic message center signs. This amendment proposes to reduce hold times from eight (8) seconds to two (2) seconds when static messages transition to another image, and proposes to amend transition methods to allow for other commonly used transitions including fade, dissolve, scroll and fly-in. Further, the amendment proposes to set a maximum speed for transition times of the amended transition methods to a rate of no faster than the "medium" speed program setting as reflected in a scrolling rate. STAFF FINDINGS Recently, in the interest of maximizing information provided to the public, city staff conducted a non-scientific evaluation over a ninety (90) day period to determine the effectiveness of additional message transitions on the City Hall EMC (alongside State Road 434). Currently, Section 16-81 of the Code for Changeable Copy Signs and EMC's allows for a `static' image with an eight(8) second hold time to be displayed. This requirement has limited the intended viewing audience to approximately two (2) short message subjects during a typical drive-by at 45 mph. In an effort to increase the amount of information viewed by each driver during the evaluation period, staff reprogrammed the City Hall EMC to utilize various industry standard message transitions including scroll, fade, dissolve, fly-in and animated images. The additional transitions allow for multiple screens of information on a subject to be displayed at `medium' speed setting before pausing two (2) seconds prior to presenting a new message subj ect. Feedback from residents, business owners, dignitaries, and city staff, including the Police and Parks Departments, has been randomly solicited regarding the effectiveness of these transitioning methods, length, hold times, transition times, and usefulness of fresh information. Based on verbal feedback, the following examples were noted: . Message content that transitioned without a long pause stimulated more interest. . Fresh messages were welcomed while messages left in rotation for thirty (30) days or more almost completely lost viewer interest. . Due to the flexibility of additional transitions, more detailed information on Public Hearings 503 PAGE 3 OF 6-June 23,2014 each subj ect was provided, which increased interest and retention. . The EMC was more appealing and "ALNE!", as described by one resident. . No negative feedback was noted regarding the EMC during the evaluation period. . The City's Police and Parks Departments commented on several occasions about how much more useful the sign has become in getting important information out to the community. In conclusion, the transition methods utilized during our ninety (90) day evaluation period have greatly increased the utility of the EMC at City Hall by allowing for more pertinent and visually stimulating information to reach our mobile audiences. Based on results of this evaluation and various publicized scientific studies, it is reasonable to assume that Ordinance 2014-13 would be beneficial to the city's economical development initiatives and serve to enhance the public benefit of all EMC's within the city. Businesses who operate an EMC will have a low cost venue for broadcasting larger volumes of relevant information to consumers, thereby increasing opportunities to stimulate sales within the local tax base. SUPPORTING INFORMATION SAFETY In a 2001 publication by the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) on Electronic Message Centers, the Federal Government has made the determination that EMC's are not a distraction to roadway drivers, in fact they were found to generally increase driver safety when configured properly. The publication cited a Federal Highway Administration Commissioned Study completed in 1980 which set out to prove that Electronic Variable Message Centers were unsafe for drivers. After extensive research, the study concluded that no credible statistical evidence was available to support a conclusion that electronic or variable message centers negatively impacted road safety. The writer of the report opined that roadside signs, in general, provided a stimulus that helped to maintain driver alertness and increase safety by combating driver fatigue. Moreover, the SBA published information showing several states that have conducted safety studies on the affects of roadside signs, including EMC's, and none have found an increase in roadside accidents. In fact, some states found a significant decrease in accidents, which is attributed directly to the roadway signs. In addition, as part of the SBA Publication, nine leading insurance companies were surveyed about accidents related to roadway signage and all companies indicated that they had never received an accident claim involving an advertising sign. On December 27, 2013, the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) released a multi-year study on driver visual behavior in the presence of Changeable Electronic Variable Message Signs that stated, "The present data suggest that the drivers in this study directed the majority of their visual attention to areas of the roadway that were relevant to the task at hand(e.g., the driving task). "Furthermore, it is possible, and likely, that in the time that the drivers looked away from the forward roadway, they may have elected to glance at other obj ects in the surrounding environment (in the absence of billboards) that were not relevant to the driving task "When billboards were present, the drivers in this study sometimes looked at them, but not such that overall attention to the fonvard roadway decreased." Public Hearings 503 PAGE 4 OF 6-June 23,2014 According to the abovementioned 2001 SBA Publication, "the electronic message display rapidly becomes a landmark in a business's local community, because it offers a valuable public service to the entire community by displaying public service information, civic events, personal and holiday greetings, current time and temperature and specific advertising messages." The report further stated, "Passing viewers often look forward to reading clever new messages, and may even come to rely upon the message service in some settings. But, most importantly to the business owner, the passing viewers will remember what the business is, and where the business is located." A recent study conducted by the Virginia Tech Traffic Institute (VTTI) concluded the average amount of time it takes for a driver of a car to look at an electronic message display and read and process the information is approximately 1 second during a 6 second period. This study concluded that traffic accidents are no more likely to occur in the presence of electronic message displays than in their absence. An additional study by VTTI concluded texting while driving causes a driver to glance at their respective mobile device for an average of 4.6 seconds during a 6 second period. This equates to a driver traveling then length of a football field at 55 miles per hour without looking at the roadway. A 2 second glance away from the road is considered to be a dangerous level. FISCAL IMPACT: While there is no direct fiscal impact to the City, staff is of the opinion that the proposed new code language will facilitate more diversified development and increase the chance of local businesses remaining viable over the long term, which will have a positive fiscal impact to the City's tax base. COMMUNICATION EFFORTS: This Agenda Item has been electronically forwarded to the Mayor and City Commission, City Manager, City Attorney/Staff, and is available on the City's Website, LaserFiche, and the City's Server. Additionally, portions of this Agenda Item are typed verbatim on the respective Meeting Agenda which has also been electronically forwarded to the individuals noted above, and which is also available on the City's Website, LaserFiche, and the City's Server; has been sent to applicable City Staff, Media/Press Representatives who have requested Agendas/Agenda Item information, Homeowner's Associations/Representatives on file with the City, and all individuals who have requested such information. This information has also been posted outside City Hall, posted inside City Hall with additional copies available for the General Public, and posted at five (5) different locations around the City. Furthermore, this information is also available to any individual requestors. City Staff is always willing to discuss this Agenda Item or any Agenda Item with any interested individuals. This item was advertised in the Orlando Sentinel on June 12, 2014. RECOMMENDATION: Staff recommends the City Commission approve first reading of Ordinance 2014-13, which proposes to amend the City's regulations regarding off-premises signs, commonly referred to as billboards and electronic message centers, and move said Ordinance forward to second reading. �mm��urR��rmc. Public Hearings 503 PAGE 5 OF 6-June 23,2014 A. Ordinance 2014-13 B. Ordinance 2013-11 -provided for technical display requirements C. SBA Publication on EMC's (2001) D. FHA Study CEVMS (Sept. 2012) E. Minutes, Planning& Zoning Board - June 4, 2014 F. Advertisement, Orlando Sentinel - June 12, 2014 Public Hearings 503 PAGE 6 OF 6-June 23,2014 Attachment "A" ORDINANCE NO. 2014-13 AN ORDINANCE OF THE CITY COMMISSION OF THE CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS, SEMINOLE COUNTY, FLORIDA, REGARDING THE REGULATION OF EXISTING OUTDOOR OFF-PREMISE ADVERTISING DISPLAYSBILLBOARDS LOCATED WITHIN THE CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS ON U.S. 17-92; AMENDING THE CODE RELATED TO CHANGEABLE COPY SIGNS AND ELECTRONIC MESSAGE CENTERS; PROVIDING FOR THE REPEAL OF PRIOR INCONSISTENT ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS, SEVERABILITY, INCORPORATION INTO THE CODE; AND AN EFFECTIVE DATE. WHEREAS,the City is granted the authority, under�2(b),Art. VIII of the State Constitution,to exercise any power for municipal purposes, except when expressly prohibited by law; and WHEREAS, the City has previously adopted regulations regulating outdoor off-premises advertising displays/billboards and changeable copy signs and electronic message centers within the municipal limits of the City; and WHEREAS, based upon previous legislative findings and upon recommendation of the City's Community Development Department,the City Commission desires to modify several technical provisions of the City's existing billboard sign regulations; WHEREAS, the City's Land Planning Agency conducted a public hearing regarding the Code amendments recommended by the Community Development Department set forth in this Ordinance on June 4,2014, and recommended that the City Commission adopt the amendments; and WHEREAS, the City Commission of the City of Winter Springs, Florida, hereby finds this ordinance to be in the best interests of the public health, safety, and welfare of the citizens of Winter Springs. NOW, THEREFORE, THE CITY COMMISSION OF THE CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS HEREBY ORDAINS,AS FOLLOWS: Section 1. Recitals. The foregoing recitals are hereby fully incorporated herein by reference as legislative findings of the City Commission of Winter Springs. Section 2. Chapter 16 Sign Code Amendment. The City of Winter Springs Code of Ordinances, Chapter 16, Article III, Signs, is hereby amended as follows (underlined type indicates additions and � type indicates deletions, while asterisks (* * *) indicate a deletion from the Ordinance of text existing in Chapter 16,Article IIL It is intended that the text in Chapter 16, Article III, denoted by the asterisks and set forth in this Ordinance shall remain unchanged from the language existing prior to adoption of this ordinance). City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2014-13 1 Sec. 16-77.- Outdoor display/billboards—Off-premises signs prohibited. � � � (k) This subsection is intended to provide requirements for a person to propose converting an existing structure identified on the aforementioned inventory list, and which is located on real property abutting U.S. 17-92 and within the Seminole County 17-92 Redevelopment Area,to an off-premises digital billboard sign under negotiated terms and conditions approved by the City Commission. The purpose of this subsection is to adopt standards and restrictions for any such conversion that are pursuant to the interest of the citizens of the City and Seminole County and the Redevelopment Area related to visual aesthetics and the safety of vehicular traffic. No conversion shall be allowed in the City except as provided in this subsection. ��� (2) If the City desires to engage in formal negotiations, the owner shall be required, as a precondition to negotiations,to execute an affidavit on a form prepared by the City Attorney. The affidavit shall provide at a minimum that the owner is acknowledging and agreeing that the future negotiations with the City are optional and at the sole discretion ofthe City. Further,the owner agrees that the City is under no obligation whatsoever to approve or deny the request and that the owner shall release and hold harmless the City regarding any decision made by the City on the request. Should the City Commission decide to approve an owner's conversion proposal, the conversion shall be subject to terms and conditions of a binding written agreement and the following minimum standards and requirements: ��� (vi) Notwithstanding the current location of the existing structure being removed pursuant to this subsection,the City may require the digital billboard to be located elsewhere on the subject property in order to provide adequate buffer distances from the digital billboard and U.S. 17-92 and other public right-of-way, as well as from other sensitive areas adjacent to the subject property, or require the billboard to be located on other propertv abuttin�U.S. 17-92 which is owned bv the owner of the structure or subject propertv if the relocation of the structure more fullv satisfies the purpose of subsection(k)in comparison to the property on which the structure currentl. e�; ��� Sec. 16-81- Changeable copy signs; electronic message centers. All changeable copy signs and electronic message centers shall be as follows: ��� (b) Changeable copy signs and electronic message centers may be incorporated into permitted signs and shall be included as part of the permitted sign area as described below: City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2014-13 2 (1) With the exception of billboards which are regulated by other provisions of the City Code, changeable copy signs shall not comprise more than twenty-five(25)percent ofthe permitted sign area and electronic message centers shall not comprise more than fifty(50)percent ofthe permitted sign area. (2) Electronic message centers shall display J��c��g�-o�y�:-�Ek���c��g€�e��"�a . messa�es usin�the followin� transitional methods only: static, fade, dissolve, scroll, and fly-in. Static messa�es shall hold the display face for a minimum of two (2) seconds before transitionin�to another static ima�e. Messa�es that fade,dissolve,scroll,and fly-in shall transition to and from the display area at a rate of speed no faster than the medium speed pro�ram settin�. (3) Messa�es or ima�es displayed shall not have the a�pearance of flashin�, flickerin� blinkin�, pulsatin�, or motion videos. r''r�r�;+;,,r� �,,,,. „ o �+.,+;,. ; o +„ +�,o ro.,+ ��,.,n ., o r;+�,;r , , , r�+;+„+o ., .,+;,,r �,-� „�+t,;� .,.-�;,.io ��� Section 5. Repeal of Prior Inconsistent Ordinances and Resolutions. All prior inconsistent ordinances and resolutions adopted by the City Commission, or parts of prior ordinances and resolutions in conflict herewith, are hereby repealed to the extent of the conflict. Section 6. Incorporation Into Code. This Ordinance shall be incorporated into the Winter Springs City Code and any section or paragraph, number or letter, and any heading may be changed or modified as necessary to effectuate the foregoing. Grammatical, typographical, and like errors may be corrected and additions, alterations, and omissions, not affecting the construction or meaning of this Ordinance and the City Code may be freely made. Section 7. Severability. If any section, subsection, sentence, clause, phrase, word or provision of this ordinance is for any reason held invalid or unconstitutional by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether for substantive, procedural, or any other reason, such portion shall be deemed a separate, distinct and independent provision,and such holding shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions ofthis ordinance. Section 8. Effective Date. This Ordinance shall become effective immediately upon adoption by the City Commission of the City of Winter Springs, Florida, and pursuant to the City Charter. City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2014-13 3 ADOPTED by the City Commission of the City of Winter Springs, Florida, in a regular meeting assembled on the day of , 2014. CHARLES LACEY,Mayor ATTEST: ANDREA LORENZO-LUACES City Clerk APPROVED AS TO LEGAL FORM AND SUFFICIENCY FOR THE CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS ONLY. ANTHONY A. GARGANESE City Attorney First Reading: Legal Ad Published: Effective Date: City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2014-13 4 Attachment " B " ORDINANCE NO. 2013-11 AN ORDINANCE OF THE CITY COMMISSION OF THE CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS, SEMINOLE COUNTY, FLORIDA, REGARDING THE REGULATION OF �XISTING OUTDOOR OFF-PREMISE ADVERTISING DISPLAYS/BILLBOARDS (`BILLBOARDS") LOCATED WITHIN THE CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS ON U.S. 17-92; PROVIDING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONVERTING EXISTING, LEGALLY NONCONFORMING BILLBOARDS LOCATED ON U.S 17-92 INTO DIGITAL BILLBOARDS PURSUANT TO SUBSEQUENTLY NEGOTIATED TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF AN AGREEMENT WITH TH� CITY; PROVIDING FOR THE REPEAL OF PRIOR INCONSISTENT ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS, SEVERABILITY, INCORPORATION INTO THE CODE; AND AN EFFECTIVE DATE. WHEREAS, the City is granted the authority, under § 2(b), Art. VIII of the State Constitution, to exercise any power for municipal purposes, except when expressly prohibited by law; and WHEREAS, the City has previously adopted regulations regulating outdoor off-premises advertising displays/billboards (`Billboards") within the municipal limits of the City; and WHEREAS, upon recommendation of the City's Community Development Department, the City Commission desires to adopt several technical amendments to the City's existing Billboard regulations; and WHEREAS, the City's Land Planning Agency conducted a public hearing regarding the Code amendments recommended by the Community Development Department set forth in this Ordinance on September 4, 2013 and recommended that the City Commission adopt the amendments; and WHEREAS, the City Commission hereby adopts by this reference for the sake of simplicity, all previous legislative findings and references to legal authority made by the City Commission including, but not limited to those set forth in Ordinance 2001-50, supporting the regulation of Billboards within the municipal limits of the City; and WHEREAS, the City Commission finds that U.S. 17-92 traversing along the western boundary of the City of Winter Springs and is the highest traffic corridor with the most intense commercial land uses within the City; and WHEREAS, given the character of U.S. 17-92, the City Commission finds that affarding City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2013-11 1 the opportunity to convert an existing nonconforming billboard located within this corridor to a digital sign may be more compatible with the corridor than the existing billboard provided certain terms and conditions for the conversion can be negotiated with the sign and property owner. WHEREAS,the City Commission of the City of Winter Springs,Florida,hereby finds this ordinance to be in the best interests of the public health, safety, and welfare of the citizens of Winter Springs. NOW, THEREFORE, THE CITY COMMISSION OF THE CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS HEREBY ORDAINS, AS FOLLOWS: Section 1. Recitals. The foregoing recitals are hereby fully incorporated herein by reference as legislative findings of the City Commission of Winter Springs. Section Z. Amendment to Section 16-77 of the City Code. The City of Winter Springs Code of Ordinances, Section 16-77 is hereby amended as follows (underlined type indicates additions and s�l�e{�type indicates deletions, while asterisks (* * *) indicate a deletion from the Ordinance of text existing in Section 16-77. Sec. 16-77. - Outdoor display/billboards—Off-premises signs prohibited. (a) Other than as provided within this section, off-premises signs, as defined in section 16-51 of the Cit ��Code, are strictly prohibited within the City of Winter Springs. (b) Notwithstanding anything in the City of Winter Springs Code of Ordinances to the contrary, from and after the effective date of Ord. No. 2001-50 [Oct. 22, 2001],the total number of outdoor off-premises signs located in the incorporated areas of the city shall be limited as hereafter specified. (c) The initial limitation on outdoor off-premises signs are the five (5) outdoor off-premises sign structures (hereinafter referred to as "Existing Structure(s)") currently existing in the incorporated areas of the city (the "Existing Structures"). An inventory of these existing structures dated October 22, 2001, as amended in June 2013, is filed in the community development department and is incorporated herein by this reference. (d) The limit stated in subsection (c) above may only be increased by the number of lawfully existing off-premise sign structures within unincorporated areas of Seminole County which are annexed by the City of Winter Springs. Contemporaneously with annexation the city shall conduct a survey of all existing off-premise sign structures within the annexed portions of unincorporated Seminole County. The inventory of existing structures, on file with the community development department, shall be amended by resolution of the city commission to include the addition of legally existing off-premise sign structures. City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2013-11 � (e) The limit stated in subsection (c) above, as may be amended by subsection (d), shall be correspondingly reduced upon the occurrence of any of the following: (1) An existing structure is removed incident to a road widening or other public works project; and (2) An existing structure is removed incident to the development or redevelopment of the property upon which the existing structure is located; or (3) An existing structure is removed incident to the expiration of the lease or other agreement authorizing placement of the existing structure on the property. (4) An existing structure which is non-conforming due to zoning is removed due to destruction, damage or other casualty which results in destruction of fifty (50) percent or more of the support structure for or of fifty (50) percent or more of the face of the sign. (5) An existing structure is removed or dismantled by fifty (50) percent or more of the support structure or fifty (50) percent or more of the face of the sign. (6) By the terms and conditions of a development agreement with the city, except that any development agreement after the effective date of this section shall not allow the removal of an existing structure later than the time that would otherwise be provided by this section.Any existing structure subject to a development agreement with the city prior to the effective date to this section shall be exempt from the provisions of this subsection(e) and shall be removed in accordance with the terms of the development agreement. (� At any point in time the then current limit on the number of outdoor off-premises signs located in the incorporated areas of the city shall be the initial limit specified in subsection (c) and as amended by subsection (d) above less the total number of existing structures which have been removed as specified in subsection (e) above. (g) In addition to the limitation specified above,there is hereby imposed a limitation upon the number, size and orientation of the sign faces located upon the existing structures. From and after the effective date of Ord. No. 2001-50 [Oct. 22, 2001], the number of sign faces on an existing structure may not be increased, either by adding an additional face oriented in a different direction ar by changing the display mechanism to permit the display of multiple signs on a single sign face. From and after the effective date of this Ord. No. 2001-50, no sign face on an existing structure may be increased in size and the orientation of each sign face located upon an existing structure may not be changed. (h) Except for an existing structure which is non-conforming (which cannot be replaced), an existing structure damaged or destroyed by flood, fire, earthquake, war,riot, act of God or other similar casualty loss may be reconstructed in the same location with the same (or smaller or fewer, City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2013-11 3 as the case may be) size and number of sign faces. An existing structure may not be relocated to another location. (i) Except as specifically authorized by permit issued by the State of Flarida Department of Transportation or as required by specific state statute,no trees or vegetation shall be removed or trimmed from the property upon which an outdoor off-premises sign is located or from property adjacent thereto in order to enhance the visibility of the outdoor off-premises sign. (j) In connection with any off-premise signs which are erected or constructed in violation of the provisions of this section, each day that said sign remains erected in violation of this section shall constitute a separate violation and each person responsible for erecting or constructing such off-premise sign, including but not limited to the real property owner, shall pay the city a penalty of five hundred dollars ($500.00) per day until the off-premise sign is removed. (k) This subsection is intended to provide requirements for a person to propose converting an existin� structure identified on the aforementioned inventory list, and which is located on real propertv abutting U.S. 17-92 and within the Seminole County 17-92 Redevelopment Area, to an off-premises di�ital billboard si�n under negotiated terms and conditions approved by the City Commission. The purpose of this subsection is to ado�t standards and restrictions for any such conversion that are pursuant to the interest of the citizens of the City and Seminole County and the Redevelopment Area related to visual aesthetics and the safety of vehicular traffic. No conversion shall be allowed in the Cit.�pt as provided in this subsection. (1) An owner of an existing structure subj ect to this subsection shall first be required to submit, in writin�, a conversion request to the City for an informal and preliminary review to determine whether the City, at its discretion, desires to engage in more formal negotiations re ag rdin tg he request. (2) If the City desires to en�ge in formal negotiations, the owner shall be required, as a precondition to negotiations,to execute an affidavit on a form prepared by the City Attorne� affidavit shall provide at a minimum that the owner is acknowled�n a� nd a reeing that the future negotiations with the Cit�ptional and at the sole discretion of the Citv. Further the owner agrees that the City is under no obli�ation whatsoever to a�prove or deny the request and that the owner shall release and hold harmless the Cit ��re ag rdin�y decision made by the Citv on the rec�uest. Should the City Commission decide to a�prove an owner's conversion proposal the conversion shall be subject to terms and conditions of a bindin� written agreement and the followin�minimum standards and requirements: (i) if the owner of the existing structure is not the owner of the property on which the existin�structure is located,the owner of the property shall be required to a�prove and execute the a�reement. Said a�reement shall be recorded in the Official Records of Seminole Count.y and shall be binding on the owner of the si�n and the real property;. City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2013-11 4 (ii) the conversion shall be subject to all applicable buildin�, fire and land development codes and law; however, to the extent this section conflicts with state or federal law, the more restrictive will be applied by the Cit� (iii) the followin� minimum technical displa�c�uirements shall apply unless the City Commission requires more restrictive requirements by written a�reement: 1. Displav messa�es shall be static only. Such static ima�es shall hold the display face for a minimum of eight L8) seconds before transitionin�to another static ima e�. 2. Transitions from one static ima�e to the next shall appear within three (3) seconds and shall not have the a�pearance of flashin�, flickerin�, blinkin�pulsating animation or videos or var��ght intensity. Dissolving from one static image to the next within the three (3) second transition period shall not constitute animation for purposes of this article. 3. The billboard shall come equip�ed with functionin� automatic dimmin� technolog which automatically adjusts, at all times while the electronic message center is�eratin , t�si n'g s bri�htness in direct correlation with ambient li�ht conditions. 4. No billboard shall be bri�hter than is necessary for clear and adequate visibilit� No electronic billboard shall exceed a brightness level of 6,000 NITs (NITs are the standard measure of bri�htness for electronic si�ns and devices) during daytime use or 500 NITs durin� nighttime use and to account for adverse weather conditions that reduce the amount of sunli� 5. No billboard shall displa�ght of such intensity or brilliance as to cause la� otherwise impair the vision of a driver or result in a nuisance. No billboard shall be of such intensity or brilliance that it interferes with the effectiveness of an official traffic si�n, device or signal• 6. The billboard shall have a default mechanism built in to either turn the displav off or show "full black" on the display in the event of a malfunction. Malfunction is defined as any operation of the billboard that causes glare or impairs the vision of motorists ar otherwise distracts motorists so as to interfere with the motorists' abilitv to safely �erate their vehicles or otherwise constitutes a violation of the Cit� 7. The billboard shall not be configured to resemble a warnin ,g dan eg r signal, official si�na�e used to control traffic or to cause a driver to mistake the billboard for a warning or dan�er signal. 8. Any billboard operatin� out of compliance with any standard of this section must City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2013-11 5 immediatelv terminate displa�� an ima�e until compliance is achieved. (iv) The maximum hei�ht of the billboard shall be 50-feet measured from the crown of the adjacent U.S. 17-92 and shall be compatible with the surrounding area; (v) The maximum size of the billboard face, as viewed from one direction, shall be 672 square feet (14 feet by 48 feet). All visible portions of the back side of any billboard shall be painted monochromatic black or other monochromatic, dark, neutral color, as a�roved b.� City. No embellishments and cut outs may be utilized on the billboard; _ (vi) Notwithstandin� the current location of the existing structure bein� removed pursuant to this subsection, the City ma ��require the di�ital billboard to be located elsewhere on the subject property in order to provide adequate buffer distances from the di�ital billboard and U.S. 17-92 and other public ri�ht-of-way, as well as from other sensitive areas adjacent to the subject propert� (vii) The billboard mav offer to provide cop.v space for public announcements like amber and silver alerts, public emergency notices, and community events• (viii� Upon approval bv the City, the billboard shall constitute an existin� structure and shall remain on the inventor�t pursuant to this section. (ix) Section 16-77 encoura�es the removal of existing structures on the inventorv list required by this section. Further, the City currentl�participates in the Seminole Count 1� Communitv Redevelopment A�enc ��purposes of revitalizin� and redevelopin�the U.S. 17-92 corridor. In furtherance of these legitimate public purposes the Cit�y in its discretion and as a condition of ne otiatin��reement under this subsection, require a sign owner in exchange for the right to construct a di�ital billboard, to agree to remove another existin� legally non-conforming billboard located elsewhere in the City or within an�portion of the Seminole County 17-92 Redevelopment Area within or outside the Cit�iurisdictional boundaries. Section 5. Repeal of Prior Inconsistent Ordinances and Resolutions. All prior inconsistent ordinances and resolutions adopted by the City Commission, or parts of prior ordinances and resolutions in conflict herewith, are hereby repealed to the extent of the conflict. Section 6. Incorporation Into Code. This Ordinance shall be incorporated into the Winter Springs City Code and any section or paragraph, number or letter, and any heading may be changed or modified as necessary to effectuate the foregoing. Grammatical, typographical, and like errars may be corrected and additions, alterations, and omissions, not affecting the construction or meaning of this Ordinance and the City Code may be freely made. Section 7. Severability. If any section, subsection, sentence, clause, phrase, word or provision of this ordinance is for any reason held invalid or unconstitutional by any court of City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2013-11 6 competent jurisdiction,whether for substantive,procedural, or any other reason, such portion shall be deemed a separate, distinct and independent provision, and such holding shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. Section 8. Effective llate. This Ordinance shall become effective immediately upon adoption by the City Commission of the City of Winter Springs, Florida, and pursuant to the City Charter. ADOPTED by the City Commission of the City of Winter Springs, Florida, in a regular meeting assembled on the 10'h day of March, 2014. � / ' � C ES AC Y a � r� ` ATTES • A ENZO-LUACES City Cle k APPROVED AS TO LEGAL FORM AND SUFFICIENCY FOR THE CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS ONLY. � ANTHONY A. GARGANESE City Attorney First Reading: February 24, 2014 Legal Ad Published: February 27, 2014 Effective Date: March 10, 2014 City of Winter Springs Ordinance No. 2013-11 7 Attachment "C" ��e�a�c Niess�ge C��tr+�s{E�IC�) ��,. . ., �e U_�.Sn�a�t�'3�sis�,��s�dmi�s�iio���ad f�e �i�ag�Fatmd�tirna for���tun�nicatitr�i E�c��ene�,�ne. a����"° ������� far �v�r ��:�i����. �:�L�,�.. 5��.�I��3a��iness Ac����i�#r�tit��a�d t�e ����Fe���.t�o�.ft�r Cc��.�.i.c��rei� E�c�l���ce,3�c_,h���joi.��#o�e�er�ca��t�this �€'c�r���c��ftar���t�a��a���ss���r. 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'Th�Li.S_a�Bus�ss�r�a��s�tic����e �i�g���u�td�.��rn f�r2-C��n�nt�t�icataon�x��Ii�c�e,I�tc. ��°�a�"•��,� �1��tr���e����e���tr+��; �a��a�d I��g� It is a�es��t�o��e s�fety c���I1+�Cs t��at>si�ce 197'�,���'e��ra1�Ii��i���y�c�zr���s���io��l��s nt�t se���y �.�d tts rev��e��r�c���n��t��l���ty e��c�r�gre�is�eg��e�ei�I�at���.������c1r€a�.i�i�ess���si�age, ��o�id�t��t: l. �l�.e�s�i�ys�r�ch����t r�a€sa��le��;rvals, �. ��e�agn��e daes�€��vit���fie���a�g�ia������ees�e��"s c���t���af�as��ii�ts,�� 3. a st�����cc��t�t ic�c����tr�l,s i�l�eu of st.at�ec��t�ats a�tl���c�si:�i�s a�e��nsiderec�t�l���re b�n i� �stcm��se w�thi�t��la�a�iiy�,or a state cc���s de��rn�ed���c su�:�.�ig�s dQ�t�ans�i#�zte fl�i��,��r�ft�nt c�r n�o�ri��l��ts. ������� ����a at-�a �������r��,����,��t�o-��n-��_ Attachment "D" DRIVER VISUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE PRESENCE OF COMMERCIAL ELECTRONIC VARIABLE MESSAGE SIGNS (CEVMS) SEPTEMBER 2012 U,S,Departmento Transportation FHWA-HEP- Federal Highway � Administration FOREWORD The advent of electronic billboard technologies, in particular the digital Light-Emitting Diode (LED)billboard, has necessitated a reevaluation of current legislation and regulation for controlling outdoor advertising. In this case, one of the concerns is possible driver distraction. In the context of the present report, outdoor advertising signs employing this new advertising technology are referred to as Commercial Electronic Variable Message Signs (CEVMS). They are also commonly referred to as Digital Billboards and Electronic Billboards. The present report documents the results of a study conducted to investigate the effects of CEVNIS used for outdoor advertising on driver visual behavior in a roadway driving environment. The report consists of a brief review of the relevant published literature related to billboards and visual distraction, the rationale for the Federal Highway Administration research study, the methods by which the study was conducted, and the results of the study, which used an eye tracking system to measure driver glances while driving on roadways in the presence of CEVMS, standard billboards, and other roadside elements. The report should be of interest to highway engineers, traffic engineers, highway safety specialists, the outdoor advertising industry, environmental advocates, Federal policymakers, and State and local regulators of outdoor advertising. Monique R. Evans Director, Office of Safety Research and Development Nelson Castellanos Director, Office of Real Estate Services Notice This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the obj ective of the document. Quality Assurance Statement The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. The FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement. TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1.Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3.Recipient's Catalog No. FHWA-HRT- 4. Title and Subtitle 5.Report Date Driver Visual Bel�avior in the Presence of Commercial Electronic Variable Message Signs(CEVMS) 6.Performing Organizarion Code 7. Author(s) 8.Performing Organizarion Report No. William A.Perez,Mary Anne Bertola,Jason F.Kennedy,and John A. Molino 9.Performing Organizarion Name and Address 10. Work Unit Na (TRAIS) SAIC 6300 Georgetown Pike 11. Contract or Grant No. McLean,VA 22101 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 13.Type of Report and Period Covered Office of Real Estate Services Federal Highway Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE 14. Sponsoring Agency Code Washington,DC 20590 15. Supplementaty Notes The Contracring Officer's Technical Representarives(COTR)were Christopher Monk and Thomas Granda. 16. Abstract This study was conducted to invesrigate the effect of CEVMS on driver visual bel�avior in a roadway driving environment. An instrumented vehicle with an eye tracking system was used.Roads containing CEVMS, standard billboards,and control areas with no off-premise advertising were selected.Data were collected on arterials and freeways in the day and nighttime.Field studies were conducted in two ciries where the same methodology was used but there were differences in the roadway visual environment. The gazes to the road ahead were high across the condirions;however,the CEVMS and billboard conditions resulted in a lower probability of gazes as compared to the control condirions(roadways not containing off-premise advertising)with the exceprion of arterials in Richmond where none of the condirions differed from each other.Examinarion of where drivers gazed in the CEVMS and standard billboard conditions showed tl�at gazes away from the road ahead were not primarily to the billboards. Average and maYimum fixarions to CEVMS and standard billboards were similar across all condirions.However,four long dwell times were found(sequential and multiple fixations)that were greater than 2,000 ms. One was to a CEVMS on a freeway in the day time,two were to the same standard billboard on a freeway once in the day and once at night and one was to a standard billboard on an arterial at night. In Richmond,the results showed that drivers gazed more at CEVMS than at standard billboards at night however,in Reading the drivers were equally likely to gaze towards CEVMS or standard billboards in day and night. The results of the study are consistent with research and theory on the control of gaze bel�avior in natural environments. The demands of the driving task tend to affect the driver's self- regulation of gaze behavior. 17.Key Words 18.Distriburion Statement Driver visual behavior,visual environment,billboards,eye tracking No restrictions. system,commercial electronic variable message signs, CEVMS,visual complexity 19. Security Classif. (of this report) 20. Security Classif. (of this page) 21.No. of Pages 22.Price Unclassified Unclassified Form DOT F 1700.7(8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized , APPR�XIMATE����CUNVERSI�NS T�SI UNITS Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol ' LENGTH ' in 'inches ' 25,4 miliimeters ' ' mm ft feet 0.305 meters m yd ''yards 0.914 meters '' m mi ''miles 1'.61 kilometers '' '' km AREA inZ square inches 645.2 square millimeters mmZ ftZ square feet 0.093 square meters mZ ydZ square yard 0.836 square meters mZ ac acres 0.405 hectares ha miZ square miles 2.59 square kilometers kmZ '� VOLUME '� fi az ' 'fiuid ounces 29,57 miliiliters ' mL gal , gallons 3.785 liters L ft3 'cubic feet 0,028 cubic meters ' m3 yd3 'cu6ic yards 0.765 cubie meters ' m3 ,'NOTE:volumes greater than 1000 L shall be shown in m�',' MASS oz ounces 28.35 grams g Ib pounds 0.454 kilograms kg T short tons(2000 Ib) 0.907 megagrams(or"metric ton") Mg(or"Y') TEMPERATURE',(exact degrees) °F 'Fahrenheit 5(F-32)/9 Celsi�s ' °C or(F-32)/1.8 ' ILLUMINATION fc foot-candles 10.76 lux Ix fl foot-Lamberts 3.426 candela/mZ cd/mZ FORCE and PRESSURE orSTRESS Ilaf �;poundforce 4_45 newtons ' N Ibf/in�' ''poundforee per square inch ' 6.89 kilopascals ' '' kPa APRROXIMATE�ONUER�vIC?N5 FR4M�vl UNITS Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol ' LENGTH ' mm '' ''millimeters 0.039 inches '' in m ``meters `` 3',28 feet ft m ''meters '' T!.09 yards ',' yd km ' ss kilometers Q1621 miles ss mi AREA mmZ square millimeters 0.0016 square inches inZ mZ square meters 10.764 square feet ftZ mZ square meters 1.195 square yards ydZ ha hectares 2.47 acres ac kmZ square kilometers 0.386 square miles miZ ' VQLUME ' mL '' ''milliliters' 0.034 fluid ounces' '' fl oz L ``liters 0',264 gallons `` gal m' ''cubic meters 35.314 �ubic feet ' '' ft' m3 ss cubic meters T'.307 cubic yards ss ss yd3 MASS g grams 0.035 ounces oz kg kilograms 2.202 pounds Ib Mg(or"Y') megagrams(or"metric ton") 1.103 short tons(2000 Ib) T TEMPEI�ATURE���(exact'degrees} °C 'Gelsius ' T',8C+32 ' Fahrenheit ' °F ILLUMINATION Ix lux 0.0929 foot-candles fc cd/mZ candela/mZ 0.2919 foot-Lamberts fl FORCE and PRESSURE orSTRESS N 'nev+rtans' 0.225 poundforce ' ' Ibf kPa '� ''�kilopaseals 6.145 pqundforce per square inch ''� Ibflin� ' 'SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380. Revised March 2003 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 5 BACKGROUND 5 Post-Hoc Crash Studies 5 Field Investigations 6 Laboratory Studies 8 Summary 9 STUDY APPROACH 9 Research Questions 12 EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH 13 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OVERVIEW 14 Site Selection 14 READING 16 METHOD 16 Selection of Data Collection Zone Limits 16 Advertising Conditions 16 Photometric Measurement of Signs 19 Visual Complexity 20 Participants 21 Procedures 21 DATA REDUCTION 23 Eye Tracking Measures 23 Other Measures 25 RESULTS 26 Photometric Measurements 26 Visual Complexity 27 Effects of Billboards on Gazes to the Road Ahead 28 Fixations to CEVMS and Standard Billboards 30 Comparison of Gazes to CEVMS and Standard Billboards 36 Observation of Driver Behavior 36 Level of Service 36 DISCUSSION OF READING RESULTS 37 RICHMOND 40 METHOD 40 Selection of DCZ Limits 40 Advertising Type 40 Photometric Measurement of Signs 42 Visual Complexity 42 Participants 43 Procedures 43 DATA REDUCTION 44 Eye Tracking Measures 44 iii Other Measures 44 RESULTS 44 Photometric Measurement of Signs 44 Visual Complexity 45 Effects of Billboards on Gazes to the Road Ahead 45 Fixations to CEVMS and Standard Billboards 47 Comparison of Gazes to CEVMS and Standard Billboards 50 Observation of Driver Behavior 51 Level of Service 51 DISCUSSION OF RICHMOND RESULTS 51 GENERAL DISCUSSION 53 CONCLUSIONS 53 Do CEVMS attract drivers' attention away from the forward roadway and other driving relevant stimuli? 53 Do glances to CEVMS occur that would suggest a decrease in safety? 54 Do drivers look at CEVMS more than at standard billboards? 54 SUMMARY 55 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH 55 REFERENCES 57 iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Eye tracking system camera placement. 13 Figure 2. FHWA's field research vehicle. 14 Figure 3. DCZ with a target CEVMS on a freeway. 17 Figure 4. DCZ with a target CEVMS on an arterial. 18 Figure 5. DCZ with a target standard billboard on a freeway. 18 Figure 6. DCZ with a target standard billboard on an arterial. 18 Figure 7. DCZ for the control condition on a freeway. 19 Figure 8. DCZ for the control condition on an arterial. 19 Figure 9. Screen capture showing static ROIs on a scene video output. 23 Figure 10. Mean feature congestion as a function of advertising condition and road type (standard errors for the mean are included in the graph). 27 Figure 11. Distribution of fixation duration for CEVMS in the daytime and nighttime. 30 Figure 12. Distribution of fixation duration for standard billboards in the daytime and nighttime. 31 Figure 13. Distribution of fixation duration for road ahead (i.e., top and bottom road ahead ROIs)in the daytime and nighttime. 31 Figure 14. Heat map for the start of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on an arterial. 33 Figure 15. Heat map for the middle of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on an arterial. 33 Figure 16. Heat map near the end of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on an arterial. 33 Figure 17. Heat map for start of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on a freeway. 34 Figure 18. Heat map for middle of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on a freeway. 34 Figure 19. Heat map near the end of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on a freeway. 34 Figure 20. Heat map for the start of a DCZ for a standard billboard in the daytime on a freeway. 35 Figure 21. Heat map near the middle of a DCZ for a standard billboard in the daytime on a freeway. 3 5 Figure 22. Heat map near the end of DCZ for standard billboard in the daytime on a freeway. 3 5 Figure 23. Heat map at the end of DCZ for standard billboard in the daytime on a freeway. 3 5 Figure 24. Example of identified salient areas in a road scene based on bottom-up analysis. 38 Figure 25. Example of a CEVMS DCZ on a freeway. 41 Figure 26. Example of CEVMS DCZ an arterial. 41 Figure 27. Example of a standard billboard DCZ on a freeway. 41 Figure 28. Example of a standard billboard DCZ on an arterial. 42 Figure 29. Example of a control DCZ on a freeway. 42 Figure 30. Example of a control DCZ on an arterial. 42 v Figure 3 L Mean feature congestion as a function of advertising condition and road type. 45 Figure 32. Fixation duration for CEVMS in the day and at night. 47 Figure 33. Fixation duration for standard billboards in the day and at night. 48 Figure 34. Fixation duration for the road ahead in the day and at night. 48 Figure 35. Heat map for first fixation to CEVMS with long dwell time. 49 Figure 36. Heat map for later fixations to CEVMS with long dwell time. 50 Figure 37. Heat map at end of fixations to CEVMS with long dwell time. 50 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Distribution of CEVMS by roadway classification for various cities. 15 Table 2. Inventory of target billboards with relevant parameters. 17 Table 3. Summary of luminance (cd/m�) and contrast(Weber ratio) measurements. 27 Table 4. The probability of gazing at the road ahead as a function of advertising condition and road type. 28 Table 5. Probability of gazing at ROIs for the three advertising conditions on arterials and freeways. 29 Table 6. Level of service as a function of advertising type, road type, and time of day. 37 Table 7. Inventory of target billboards in Richmond with relevant parameters. 40 Table 8. Summary of luminance (cd/m�) and contrast(Weber ratio) measurements. 44 Table 9. The probability of gazing at the road ahead as a function of advertising condition and road type. 46 Table 10. Probability of gazing at ROIs for the three advertising conditions on arterials and freeways. 46 Table 11. Estimated level of service as a function of advertising condition, road type, and time of day. 51 vii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND SYMBOLS CEVMS Commercial Electronic Variable Message Sign EB Empirical Bayes DCZ Data Collection Zone ROI Region of Interest LED Light-Emitting Diode IR Infra-Red CCD Charge-Coupled Device MAPPS Multiple-Analysis of Psychophysical and Performance Signals GEE Generalized Estimating Equations FHWA Federal Highway Administration DOT Department of Transportation viii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This study examines where drivers look when driving past commercial electronic variable message signs (CEVMS), standard billboards, or no off-premise advertising. The results and conclusions are presented in response to the three research questions listed below: 1. Do CEVMS attract drivers' attention away from the forward roadway and other driving- relevant stimuli? 2. Do glances to CEVMS occur that would suggest a decrease in safety? 3. Do drivers look at CEVMS more than at standard billboards? This study follows a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)review of the literature on the possible distracting and safety effects of off-premise advertising and CEVMS in particular. The review considered laboratory studies, driving simulator studies, field research vehicle studies, and crash studies. The published literature indicated that there was no consistent evidence showing a safety or distraction effect due to off-premise advertising. However, the review also enumerated potential limitations in the previous research that may have resulted in the finding of no distraction effects for off-premise advertising. The study team recommended that additional research be conducted using instrumented vehicle research methods with eye tracking technology. The eyes are constantly moving and they fixate (focus on a specific obj ect or area), perform saccades (eye movements to change the point of fixation), and engage in pursuit movements (track moving obj ects). It is during fixations that we take in detailed information about the environment. Eye tracking allows one to determine to what degree off-premise advertising may divert attention away from the forward roadway. A finding that areas containing CEVMS result in significantly more gazes to the billboards at a cost of not gazing toward the forward roadway would suggest a potential safety risk In addition to measuring the degree to which CEVMS may distract from the forward roadway, an eye tracking device would allow an examination of the duration of fixations and dwell times (multiple sequential fixations)to CEVMS and standard billboards. Previous research conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)led to the conclusion that taking your eyes off the road for 2 seconds or more presents a safety risk Measuring fixations and dwell times to CEVMS and standard billboards would also allow a determination as to the degree to which these advertising signs lead to potentially unsafe gaze behavior. Most of the literature concerning eye gaze behavior in dynamic environments suggests that task demands tend to override visual salience (an obj ect that stands out because of its physical properties)in determining attention allocation. When extended to driving it would be expected that visual attention will be directed toward task-relevant areas and objects (e.g., the roadway, other vehicles, speed limit signs) and that other salient objects, such as billboards, would not necessarily capture attention. However, driving is a somewhat automatic process and conditions generally do not require constant, undivided attention. As a result, salient stimuli, such as CEVMS, might capture driver attention and produce an unwanted increase in driver distraction. The present study addresses this concern. 1 This study used an instrumented vehicle with an eye tracking system to measure where drivers were looking when driving past CEVMS and standard billboards. The CEVMS and standard billboards were measured with respect to luminance, location, size, and other relevant variables to characterize these visual stimuli extensively. Unlike previous studies on digital billboards, the present study examined CEVMS as deployed in two United States cities. These billboards did not contain dynamic video or other dynamic elements, but changed content approximately every 8 to 10 seconds. The eye tracking system had nearly a 2-degree level of resolution that provided significantly more accuracy in determining what objects the drivers were looking at compared to an earlier naturalistic driving study. This study assessed two data collection efforts that employed the same methodology in two cities. In each city, the study examined eye glance behavior to four CEVMS, two on arterials and two on freeways. There were an equal number of signs on the left and right side of the road for arterials and freeways. The standard billboards were selected for comparison with CEVMS such that one standard billboard environment matched as closely as possible that of each of the CEVMS. Two control locations were selected that did not contain off-premise advertising, one on an arterial and the other on a freeway. This resulted in 10 data collection zones in each city that were approximately 1,000 feet in length(the distance from the start of the data collection zone to the point that the CEVMS or standard billboard disappeared from the data collection video). In Reading, Pennsylvania, 14 participants drove at night and 17 drove during the day. In Richmond, Virginia, 10 participants drove at night and 14 drove during the day. Calibration of the eye tracking system, practice drive, and the data collection drive took approximately 2 hours per participant to accomplish. The following is a summary of the study results and conclusions presented in reference to the three research questions the study aimed to address. Do CEVMS attract drivers' attention away from the forward roadway and other driving relevant stimuli? • On average, the drivers in this study devoted between 73 and 85 percent of their visual attention to the road ahead for both CEVMS and standard billboards. This range is consistent with earlier field research studies. In the present study, the presence of CEVMS did not appear to be related to a decrease in looking toward the road ahead. Do glances to CEVMS occur that would suggest a decrease in safety? • The average fixation duration to CEVMS was 379 ms and to standard billboards it was 335 ms across the two cities. The average fixation durations to CEVMS and standard billboards were similar to the average fixation duration to the road ahead. • The longest fixation to a CEVMS was 1,335 ms and to a standard billboard it was 1,284 ms. The current widely accepted threshold for durations of glances away from the road ahead that result in higher crash risk is 2,000 ms. This value comes from a NHTSA 2 naturalistic driving study that showed a significant increase in crash odds when glances away from the road ahead were 2,000 ms or longer. • Four dwell times (aggregate of consecutive fixations to the same object) greater than 2,000 ms were observed across the two studies. Three were to standard billboards and one was to a CEVMS. The long dwell time to the CEVMS occurred in the daytime to a billboard viewable from a freeway. Review of the video data for these four long dwell times showed that the signs were not far from the forward view while participant's gaze dwelled on them. Therefore, the drivers still had access to information about what was in front of them through peripheral vision. • The results did not provide evidence indicating that CEVMS, as deployed and tested in the two selected cities, were associated with unacceptably long glances away from the road. When dwell times longer than the currently accepted threshold of 2,000 ms occurred, the road ahead was still in the driver's field of view. This was the case for both CEVMS and standard billboards. Do drivers look at CEVMS more than at standard billboards? • When comparing the probability of a gaze at a CEVMS versus a standard billboard, the drivers in this study were generally more likely to gaze at CEVMS than at standard billboards. However, some variability occurred between the two locations and between the types of roadway (arterial or freeway). • In Reading, when considering the proportion of time spent looking at billboards, the participants looked more often at CEVMS than at standard billboards when on arterials (63 percent to CEVMS and 37 percent to a standard billboard), whereas they looked more often at standard billboards when on freeways (33 percent to CEVMS and 67 percent to a standard billboard). In Richmond, the drivers looked at CEVMS more than standard billboards no matter the type of road they were on, but as in Reading, the preference for gazing at CEVMS was greater on arterials (68 percent to CEVMS and 32 percent to standard billboards)than on freeways (55 percent to CEVMS and 45 percent to standard billboards). When a gaze was to an off-premise advertising sign, the drivers were generally more likely to gaze at a CEVMS than at a standard billboard. • In Richmond, the drivers showed a preference for gazing at CEVMS versus standard billboards at night, but in Reading the time of day did not affect gaze behavior. In Richmond, drivers gazed at CEVMS 71 percent and at standard billboards 29 percent at night. On the other hand, in the day the drivers gazed at CEVMS 52 percent and at standard billboards 48 percent. • In Reading the average gaze dwell time for CEVMS was 981 ms and for standard billboards it was 1,386 ms. The difference in these average dwell times was not statistically significant. In contrast, the average dwell times to CEVMS and standard billboards were significantly different in Richmond (1,096 ms and 674 ms, respectively). 3 The present data suggest that the drivers in this study directed the maj ority of their visual attention to areas of the roadway that were relevant to the task at hand (e.g., the driving task). Furthermore, it is possible, and likely, that in the time that the drivers looked away from the forward roadway, they may have elected to glance at other obj ects in the surrounding environment(in the absence of billboards)that were not relevant to the driving task. When billboards were present, the drivers in this study sometimes looked at them, but not such that overall attention to the forward roadway decreased. It also should be noted that, like other studies in the available literature, this study adds to the knowledge base on the issues examined, but does not present definitive answers to the research questions investigated. 4 INTRODUCTION "The primary responsibility of the driver is to operate a motor vehicle safely. The task of driving requires full attention and focus. Drivers should resist engaging in any activity that takes their eyes and attention off of the road for more than a couple of seconds. In some circumstances even a second or two can make all the difference in a driver being able to avoid a crash. "— ZIS Department of Transportation�l� The advent of electronic billboard technologies, in particular the digital Light-Emitting Diode (LED)billboard, has prompted a reevaluation of regulations for controlling outdoor advertising. An attractive quality of these LED billboards, which are hereafter referred to as Commercial Electronic Variable Message Signs (CEVMS), is that advertisements can change almost instantly. Furthermore, outdoor advertising companies can make these changes from a central remote office. Of concern is whether or not CEVMS may attract drivers' attention away from the primary task(driving)in a way that compromises safety. The current Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) guidance recommends that CEVMS should not change content more frequently than once every 8 seconds.���However, according to Scenic America, the basis of the safety concern is that the"...distinguishing trait..." of a CEVMS "... is that it can vary while a driver watches it, in a setting in which that variation is likely to attract the drivers' attention away from the roadway."�3�This study was conducted to provide the FHWA with data to determine if CEVMS capture visual attention differently than standard off-premise advertising billboards. BACKGROUND A 2009 review of the literature by Molino et al. for the FHWA failed to find convincing empirical evidence that CEVMS, as currently implemented, constitutes a safety risk greater than that of conventional vinyl billboards.�4� A great deal of work has been focused in this area, but the findings of these studies have been mixed.�4'S�A summary of the key past findings is presented here, but the reader is referred to Molino et al. for a comprehensive review of studies prior to 2008.�4� Post-Hoc Crash Studies Post-hoc crash studies use reviews of police traffic collision reports or statistical summaries of such reports in an effort to understand the causes of crashes that have taken place in the vicinity of some change to the roadside environment. In the present case, the change of concern is the introduction of CEVMS to the roadside or the replacement of conventional billboards with CEVNIS. The literature review conducted by Molino et al. did not find compelling evidence for a distraction effect attributable to CEVMS.�4� The authors concluded that all post-hoc crash studies are subject to certain weaknesses, most of which are difficult to overcome. For example, the vast maj ority of crashes are never reported to police; thus, such studies are likely to underreport crashes. Also, when crashes are caused by factors such as driver distraction or inattention, the involved driver may be unwilling or unable to report these factors to a police investigator. 5 Another weakness is that police, under time pressure, are rarely able to investigate the true root causes of crashes unless they involve serious injury, death, or extensive property damage. Furthermore, to have confidence in the results, such studies need to collect comparable data before and after the change, and, in the after phase, at equivalent but unaffected roadway sections. Since crashes are infrequent events, data collection needs to span extended periods of time both before and after introduction of the change. Few studies are able to obtain such extensive data. Two recent studies by Tantala and Tantala examined the relationship between the presence of CEVMS and crash statistics in Richmond, Virginia, and Reading Pennsylvania.�6'��For the Richmond area, 7 years of crash data at lO locations with CEVMS were included in the analyses. The study used a before-after methodology where most sites originally contained vinyl billboards (before)that were converted to CEVMS (after). The quantity of crash data was not the same for all locations and ranged from 1 year before/after to 3 years before/after. The study employed the Empirical Bayes (EB) method to analyze the data.�8� The results indicated that the total number of crashes observed was consistent with what would be statistically expected with or without the introduction of CEVMS. The analysis approach for Reading locations was much the same as for Richmond other than there were 20 rather than 10 CEVMS and 8 years of crash statistics. The EB method showed results for Reading that were very similar to those of Richmond. The studies by Tantala and Tantala appear to address many of the concerns from Molino et al. regarding the weaknesses and issues associated with crash studies.�4'6'��For example, they include crash comparisons for locations within multiple distances of each CEVMS to address concerns about the visual range used in previous analyses. They used EB analysis techniques to correct for regression-to-mean bias. Also, the EB method would better reflect crash rate changes due to changes in average daily traffic and the interactions of these with the roadway features that were coded in the model. The studies followed approaches that are commonly used in post- hoc crash studies, though the results would have been strengthened by including before-after results for non-CEVMS locations as a control group. Field Investigations Field investigations include unobtrusive observation, naturalistic driving studies, on-road instrumented vehicle investigations, test track experiments, driver interviews, surveys, and questionnaires. The following focuses on relevant studies that employed naturalistic driving and on-road instrumented vehicle research methods. Lee, McElheny, and Gibbons undertook an on-road instrumented vehicle study on Interstate and local roads near Cleveland, Ohia�9� The study looked at driver glance behavior in the vicinity of digital billboards, conventional billboards, comparison sites (sites with buildings and other signs, including digital signs), and control sites (those without similar signage). The results showed that there were no differences in the overall glance patterns (percent eyes-on-road and overall number of glances)between the different sites. Drivers also did not glance more frequently in the direction of digital billboards than in the direction of other event types (conventional billboards, comparison events, and baseline events)but drivers did take longer glances in the direction of digital billboards and comparison sites than in the direction of conventional billboards and baseline sites. However, the mean glance length toward the digital billboards was less than 6 1,000 ms. It is important to note that this study employed a video-based approach for examining drivers' visual behavior, which has an accuracy of no better than 20 degrees.�10�While this technique is likely to be effective in assessing gross eye movements and looks that are away from the road ahead, it may not have sufficient resolution to discriminate what specific obj ect the driver is looking at outside of the vehicle. Beij er, Smiley, and Eizenman evaluated driver glances toward four different types of roadside advertising signs on roads in the Toronto, Canada, area.�ii� The four types of signs were: (a) billboard signs with static advertisements; (b) billboard advertisements placed on vertical rollers that could rotate to show one of three advertisements in succession; (c) scrolling text signs with a minor active component, which usually consisted of a small strip of lights that formed words scrolling across the screen or, in some cases, a larger area capable of displaying text but not video; and (d) signs with video images that had a color screen capable of displaying both moving text and moving images. The study employed an on-road instrumented vehicle with a head- mounted eye tracking device. The researchers found no significant differences in average glance duration or the maximum glance duration for the various sign types; however, the number of glances was significantly lower for billboard signs than for the roller bar, scrolling text, and video signs. Smiley, Smahel, and Eizenman conducted a field driving study that employed an eye tracking system that recorded drivers' eye movements as participants drove past video signs located at three downtown intersections and along an urban expressway.�i�� The study route included static billboards and video advertising. The results of the study showed that on average 76 percent of glances were to the road ahead. Glances at advertising including static billboards and video signs, constituted 1.2 percent of total glances. The mean glance durations for advertising signs were between 500 ms and 750 ms, although there were a few glances of about 1,400 ms in duration. Video signs were not more likely than static commercial signs to be looked at when headways were short; in fact, the reverse was the case. Furthermore, the number of glances per individual video sign was small, and statistically significant differences in looking behavior were not found. Kettwich, Kartsen, Klinger, and Lemmer conducted a field study where drivers' gaze behavior was measured with an eye tracking system.�13� Sixteen participants drove an 11.5 mile (18.5 km) route comprised of highways, arterial roads, main roads, and one-way streets in Karlsruhe, Germany. The route contained advertising pillars, event posters, company logos, and video screens. Mean gaze duration for the four types of advertising was computed for periods when the vehicle was in motion and when it was stopped. Gaze duration while driving for all types of advertisements was under 1,000 ms. On the other hand, while the vehicle was stopped, the mean gaze duration for video screen advertisements was 2,750 ms. The study showed a significant difference between gaze duration while driving and while stationary: gaze duration was affected by the task at hand. That is, drivers tended to gaze longer while the car was stopped and there were few driving task demands. The previously mentioned studies estimated the duration of glances to advertising and computed mean values of less than 1,000 ms. Klauer et al., in his analysis of the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, concluded that glances away from the roadway for any purpose lasting more than 2,000 ms increase near-crash/crash risk by at least two times that of normal, baseline driving.�14� 7 Klauer et al. also indicated that short, brief glances away from the forward roadway for the purpose of scanning the driving environment are safe and actually decrease near-crash/crash risk�14�Using devices in a vehicle that draw visual attention away from the forward roadway for more than 2,000 ms (e.g., texting)is incompatible with safe driving. However, for external stimuli, especially those near the roadway, the evaluation of eye glances with respect to safety is less clear since peripheral vision would allow the driver to still have visual access to the forward roadway. Laboratory Studies Laboratory investigations related to roadway safety can be classified into several categories: driving simulations, non-driving-simulator laboratory testing, and focus groups. The review of relevant laboratory studies by Molino et al. did not show conclusive evidence regarding the distracting effects of CEVMS.�4�Moreover, the authors concluded that present driving simulators do not have sufficient visual dynamic range, image resolution, and contrast ratio capability to produce the compelling visual effect of a bright, photo-realistic LED-based CEVMS against a natural background scene. The following is a discussion of a driving simulator study conducted after the publication of Molino et aL�4� The study focused on the effects of advertising on driver visual behavior. Chattington, Reed, Basacik, Flint, and Parkes conducted a driving simulator study in the United Kingdom (UK)to evaluate the effects of static and video advertising on driver glance behavior.�is� The researchers examined the effects of advertisement position relative to the road (left, right, center on an overhead gantry, and in all three locations simultaneously), type of advertisement(static or video), and exposure duration of the advertisement. (The paper does not provide these durations in terms of time or distance. The exposure duration had to do with the amount of time or distance that the sign would be visible to the driver.)For the advertisements presented on the left side of the road (recall that drivers travel in the left lane in the UK), mean glance durations for static and video advertisements were significantly longer(approximately 650 to 750 ms)when drivers experienced long advertisement exposure as opposed to medium and short exposures. Drivers looked more at video advertisements (about 2 percent on average of the total duration recorded)than at static advertisements (about 0.75 percent on average). In addition, the location of the advertisements had an effect on glance behavior. When advertisements were located in the center of the road or in all three positions simultaneously, the glance durations were about 1,000 ms and were significantly longer than for signs placed on the right or left side of the road. For advertisements placed on the left side of the road, there was a significant difference in glance duration between static (about 400 ms) and video (about 800 ms). Advertisement position also had an effect on the proportion of time that a driver spent looking at an advertisement. The percentage of time looking at advertisements was greatest when signs were placed in all three locations, followed by center location signs, then the left location signs, and finally the right location signs. Drivers looked more at the video advertisements relative to the static advertisements when they were placed in all three locations, placed on the left, and placed on the right side of the road. The center placement did not show a significant difference in percent of time spent looking between static and video. 8 Summary The results from these key studies offer some insight into whether CEVMS pose a visual distraction threat. However, these same studies also reveal some inconsistent findings and potential methodological issues that are addressed in the current study. The studies conducted by Smiley et al. showed drivers glanced forward at the roadway about 76 percent of the time in the presence of video and dynamic signs where a few long glances of approximately 1,400 ms were observed.�i�� However, the video and dynamic signs used in these studies portray moving objects that are not present in CEVMS as deployed in the United States. In another field study employing eye tracking Kettwich et al. found that gaze duration while driving for all types of advertisements that they evaluated was less than 1,000 ms; however, when the vehicle was stopped, mean gaze duration for advertising was as high as 2,750 ms.�16� Collectively, these studies did not demonstrate that the advertising signs detracted from drivers' glances forward at the roadway in a substantive manner while the vehicle was moving. In contrast, the simulator study by Chattington et al. demonstrated that dynamic signs showing moving video or other dynamic elements may draw attention away from the roadway.�is� Furthermore, the location of the advertising sign on the road is an important factor in drawing drivers' visual attention. Advertisements with moving video placed in the center of the roadway on an overhead gantry or in all three positions (right, left, and in the center) simultaneously are very likely to draw glances from drivers. Finally, in a study that examined CEVMS as deployed in the United States, Lee et al. did not show any significant effects of CEVMS on driver glance behavior.�9�However, the methodology that was used likely did not employ sufficient sensitivity to determine at what specific obj ect in the environment a driver was looking. None of these studies combined all necessary factors to address the current CEVMS situation in the United States. Those studies that used eye tracking on real roads had animated and video- based signs, which are not reflective of current off-premise CEVMS practice in the United States. STUDY APPROACH Based on an extensive review of the literature, Molino et al. concluded that the most effective method to use in an evaluation of the effects of CEVMS on driver visual behavior was the instrumented field vehicle method that incorporated an eye tracking system.�4� The present study employed such an instrumented field vehicle with an eye tracking system and examined the degree to which CEVMS attract drivers' attention away from the forward roadway. The following presents a brief overview and discussion of studies using eye tracking methodology with complex visual stimuli, especially in natural environments (walking, driving etc.). The review by Molino et al. recommended the use of this type of technology and method; however, a discussion laying out technical and theoretical issues underlying the use of eye tracking methods was not presented.�4� This background is important for the interpretation of the results of the studies conducted here. 9 Standard and digital billboards are often salient stimuli in the driving environment, which may make them conspicuous. Cole and Hughes define attention conspicuity as the extent to which a stimulus is sufficiently prominent in the driving environment to capture attention. Further, Cole and Hughes state that attention conspicuity is a function of size, color, brightness, contrast relative to surroundings, and dynamic components such as movement and change.�i��It is clear that under certain circumstances image salience or conspicuity can provide a good explanation of how humans orient their attention. At any given moment a large number of stimuli reach our senses, but only a limited number of them are selected for further processing. In general, attention can be focused on a stimulus because it is important for achieving some goal, or because the properties of the stimulus can attract the attention of the observer independent of their intentions (e.g., a car horn may elicit an orienting response). When the focus of attention is goal directed, it is referred to as top-down. When the focus of attention is principally a function of stimulus attributes, it is referred to as bottom-up.�18� In general, billboards (either standard or CEVMS) are not relevant to the driving task but are presumably designed to be salient stimuli in the environment where they may draw a driver's attention. The question is to what degree CEVMS draw a driver's attention away from driving- relevant stimuli (e.g., road ahead, mirrors, and speedometer) and is this different from a standard billboard? In his review of the literature Wachtel leads one to consider CEVMS as stimuli in the environment where attention to them would be drawn in a bottom-up manner; that is, the salience of the billboards would make them stand out relative to other stimuli in the environment and drivers would reflexively look at these signs.�19�Wachtel's conclusions were in reference to research by Theeuwees who employed simple letter stimulus arrays in a laboratory task�20� Research using simple visual stimuli in a laboratory environment are very useful for testing different theories of perception, but often lack direct application to tasks such as driving. The following discusses research using complex visual stimuli and tasks that are more relevant to natural vision as experienced in the driving task. A recent review of stimulus salience and eye guidance by Tatler et al. shows that most of the evidence for the capture of attention by the conspicuity of stimuli comes from research in which the stimulus is a simple visual search array or in which the target is uniquely defined by simple visual features.��i� In other words, these are laboratory studies that use letters, arrays of letters, or simple geometric patterns as the stimuli. Pure salience-based models are capable of predicting eye movement endpoint in simple displays, but are less successful for more complex scenes that contain task-relevant and task-irrelevant salient areas.���'23� Research by Henderson et al. using photographs of actual scenes showed that subj ects looked at non-salient scene regions containing a search target and rarely looked at salient non-task-relevant regions of the scenes.�24� Salience of the stimulus alone was not a good predictor of where participants looked. Additional research by Henderson using photographs of real world scenes also showed that subj ects fixated on regions of the pictures that provided task-relevant information rather than visually salient regions with no task-relevant information. However, Henderson acknowled es that static pictures have many shortcomings when used as surrogates for real environments.�s� 10 Land's review of eye movements in dynamic environments concluded that the eyes are proactive and typically seek out information required in the second before each new activity commences.�26� Specific tasks (e.g., driving) have characteristic but flexible patterns of eye movement that accompany them, and these patterns are similar between individuals. Land concluded that the eyes rarely visit obj ects that are irrelevant to the task, and the conspicuity of objects is less important than the objects' roles in the task In a subsequent review of eye movement and natural behavior, Land concluded that in a task that requires fixation on a sequence of specific obj ects, the capture of gaze by irrelevant salient obj ects would, in general, be an obtrusive nuisance.���� The literature examining gaze control under natural behavior suggests that it is principally top- down driven, or intentionaL�24,�s,�6,��,�i,���However, top-down processing does not explain all gaze control or eye movements. For example, imagine driving down a two-lane country road and a deer jumps into the road. It is most likely that you will attend and react to this deer. Unplanned or unexpected stimuli capture our attention as we engage in complex natural tasks. Research by Jovancevio-Misic and Hayhoe showed that human gaze patterns are sensitive to the probabilistic nature of the environment.�28� In this study, participants' eye movement behavior was observed while walking among other pedestrians. The other pedestrians were confederates and were either safe, risky, or rogue pedestrians. When the study began, the risky pedestrian took a collision course with the participant 50 percent of the time, and the rogue pedestrian always assumed a collision course as he approached the participant, whereas the safe pedestrian never took a collision course. Midway through the study the rogue and safe pedestrians exchanged roles but the risky pedestrian role remained the same. The participants were not informed about the behavior of the other pedestrians. Participants were asked to follow a circular path for several laps and to avoid other pedestrians. The study showed that the participants modified their gaze behavior in response to the change in the other pedestrians' behavior. Jovancevio-Misic concluded that participants learned new priorities for gaze allocation within a few encounters and looked both sooner and longer at potentially dangerous pedestrians.�28� Gaze behavior in natural environments is affected by expectations that are derived through long- term learning. Using a virtual driving environment, Shinoda et al. asked participants to look for stop signs while driving an urban route.�29� Approximately 45 percent of the fixations fell in the general area of intersections during the simulated drive, and participants were more likely to detect stop signs placed near intersections than those placed in the middle of a block Over time, drivers have learned that stop signs are more likely to appear near intersections and, as a result, drivers prioritize their allocation of gazes to these areas of the roadway. The Tatler et al. review of the literature concludes that in natural vision, a consistent set of principles underlies eye guidance. These principles include relevance or reward potential, uncertainty about the state of the environment, and learned models of the environment.��i� Salience of environmental stimuli alone typically does not explain most eye gaze behavior in naturalistic environments. In sum, most of the literature concerning eye gaze behavior in dynamic environments suggests that task demands tend to override visual salience in determining attention allocation. When extended to driving it would be expected that visual attention will be directed toward task- relevant areas and objects (e.g., the roadway, other vehicles, speed limit signs, etc.) and other 11 salient objects, such as billboards, will not necessarily capture attention. However, driving is a somewhat automatic process and conditions generally do not require constant undivided attention. As a result, salient stimuli, such as CEVMS, might capture driver attention and provide an unwarranted increase in driver distraction. The present study addresses this concern. Research Questions The present research evaluated the effects of CEVMS on driver visual behavior under actual roadway conditions in the daytime and at night. Roads containing CEVMS, standard billboards, and areas not containing off-premise advertising were selected. The CEVMS and standard billboards were measured with respect to luminance, location, size, and other relevant visual characteristics. The present study examined CEVMS as deployed in two United States cities. Unlike previous studies, the signs did not contain dynamic video or other dynamic elements. In addition, the eye tracking system used in this study has approximately a 2-degree level of resolution. This provided significantly more accuracy in determining what objects the drivers were looking at than in previous on-road studies examining looking behavior(recall that Lee et al. used video recordings of drivers' faces that, at best, examined gross eye movements).�9� Two studies are reported. Each study was conducted in a different city. The two studies employed the same methodology. The studies' primary research questions were: 1. Do CEVMS attract drivers' attention away from the forward roadway and other driving relevant stimuli? 2. Do glances to CEVMS occur that would suggest a decrease in safety? 3. Do drivers look at CEVMS more than at standard billboards? 12 EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The study used a field research vehicle equipped with a non-intrusive eye tracking system. The vehicle was a 2007 Jeep� Grand Cherokee Sport Utility Vehicle. The eye tracking system used (SmartEye�vehicle-mounted infrared (IR) eye-movement measuring system)is shown in figure L�30� The system consists of two IR light sources and three face cameras mounted on the dashboard of the vehicle. The cameras and light sources are small in size, and are not attached to the driver in any manner. The face cameras are synchronized to the IR light sources and are used to determine the head position and gaze direction of the driver. i / � _ — � \ � � � � � � �° Figure 1. Eye tracking system camera placement. As a part of this eye tracking system, the vehicle was outfitted with a three-camera panoramic scene monitoring system for capturing the forward driving scene. The scene cameras were mounted on the roof of the vehicle directly above the driver's head position. The three cameras together provided an 80-degree wide by 40-degree high field of forward view. The scene cameras captured the forward view area available to the driver through the left side of the windshield and a portion of the right side of the windshield. The area visible to the driver through the rightmost area of the windshield was not captured by the scene cameras. The vehicle was also outfitted with equipment to record GPS position, vehicle speed, and vehicle acceleration. The equipment also recorded events entered by an experimenter and synchronized those events with the eye tracking and vehicle data. The research vehicle is pictured in figure 2. 13 1 �:�, � ' ��` � �_,; - - _�� �-�'-�- � � -�. 1 .��� � - �� -�_ �� �. � � `�� ,,� � � . ���� J: ��:�1 - , . . _ - .� - Figure 2. FHWA's field research vehicle. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OVERVIEW The approach entailed the use of the instrumented vehicle in which drivers navigated routes in cities that presented CEVMS and standard billboards as well as areas without off-premise advertising. The participants were instructed to drive the routes as they normally would. The drivers were not informed that the study was about outdoor advertising but rather that it was about examining drivers' glance behavior as they followed route guidance directions. Site Selection More than 40 cities were evaluated in the selection of the test sites. Locations with CEVMS displays were identified using a variety of resources that included State department of transportation contacts, advertising company Web sites, and a popular geographic information system. A matrix was developed that listed the number of CEVMS in each city. For each site, the number of CEVMS along limited access and arterial roadways was determined. One criterion for site selection was whether the location had practical routes that pass by a number of CEVMS as well as standard off-premise billboards and could be driven in about 30 minutes. Other considerations included access to vehicle maintenance personnel/facilities, proximity to research facilities, and ease of participant recruitment. Two cities were selected: Reading, and Richmond. Table 1 presents the 16 cities that were included on the final list of potential study sites. 14 Table 1. Distribution of CEVMS by roadway classification for various cities. Staxe Area LimitedAccess Arterial Other�'� Total VA Richmond 4 7 0 11 PA Reading 7 11 0 18 VA Roanoke 0 11 0 11 PA Pittsburgh 0 0 15 15 TX San Antonio 7 2 6 15 WI Milwaukee 14 2 0 16 AZ Phoenix 10 6 0 16 MN St.Paul/Miiiiieapolis 8 5 3 16 TN Nashville 7 10 0 17 FL Tampa-St.Petersburg 7 11 0 18 NM Albuquerque 0 19 1 20 PA Scranton-Wilkes Barre 7 14 1 22 OH Columbus 1 22 0 23 GA Atlanta 13 11 0 24 II, Chicago 22 2 1 25 CA Los Angeles 3 71 4 78 (1)Other includes roadways classified as both limited access and arterial ar instances where the road classification was unknown.Source:www.lamar.com and�n��n��n�.clearchannel.com In both test cities, the following independent variables were evaluated: • The type of advertising. This included CEVMS, standard billboards, and no off-premise advertising. (It should be noted that in areas with no off-premise advertising it was still possible to encounter on-premise advertising; e.g., for gas stations, restaurants, and other miscellaneous stores and shops.) • Time of day. This included driving in the daytime and at night. • The functional class of roadways in which off-premise advertising signs were located. Roads were classified as either freeway or arterial. It was observed that the different road classes were correlated with the presence of other visual information that could affect the driver's glance behavior. For example, the visual environment on arterials may be more complex or cluttered than on freeways because of the close proximity of buildings, driveways, and on-premise advertising etc. 15 READING The first on-road study was conducted in Reading. This study examined the type of advertising (CEVMS, standard billboard, or no off-premise advertising), time of day (day or night) and road type (freeway or arterial) as independent variables. Eye tracking was used to assess where participants gazed and for how long while driving. The luminance and contrast of the advertising signs were measured to characterize the billboards in the current study. METHOD Selection of Data Collection Zone Limits Data collection zones (DCZ)were defined on the routes that participants drove where detailed analyses of the eye tracking data were planned. The DCZ were identified that contained a CEVMS, a standard billboard, or no off-premise advertising. The rationale for selecting the DCZ limits took into account the geometry of the roadway (e.g., road curvature or obstructions that blocked view of billboards) and the capabilities of the eye tracking system (2 degrees of resolution). At a distance of 960 ft(292.61 m), the average billboard in Reading was 12.8 ft(3.90 m)by 36.9 ft(11.25 m) and would subtend a horizontal visual angle of 2.20 degrees and a vertical visual angle of 0.76 degrees, and thus glances to the billboard would just be resolvable by an eye tracking system with 2 degrees of accuracy. Therefore 960 ft was chosen as the maximum distance from billboards at which a DCZ would begin. If the target billboard was not visible from 960 ft(292.61 m) due to roadway geometry or other visual obstructions, such as trees or an overpass, the DCZ was shortened to a distance that prevented these objects from interfering with the driver's vision of the billboard. In DCZs with target off-premise billboards, the end of the DCZ was marked when the target billboard left the view of the scene camera. If the area contained no off-premise advertising the end of the DCZ was defined by a physical landmark leaving the view of the eye tracking systems' scene camera. Table 2 shows the data collection zone limits used in this study. Advertising Conditions The type of advertising present in DCZs was examined as an independent variable. DCZs fell into one of the following categories, which are listed in the second column of table 2: • CEVMS. These were DCZs that contained one target CEVMS. Two CEVMS DCZs were located on freeways and two were located on arterials. Figure 3 and figure 4 show examples of CEVMS DCZs with the CEVMS highlighted in the pictures. • Standard billboard. These were DCZs that contained one target standard billboard. Two standard billboard DCZs were located on freeways and two were located on arterials. Figure 5 and figure 6 show examples of standard billboard DCZs; the standard billboards are highlighted in the pictures. 16 • No off-premise advertising conditions. These DCZs contained no off-premise advertising. One of these DCZs was on a freeway (see figure 7) and the other was on an arterial (see figure 8). Table 2. Inventory of target billboards with relevant parameters. Advertising COpY Side of Setback Other Approach Type of DCZ Z,ype Dimensions Road ./�rom Road Standard Length(ft) Roadway (ft) (ft) Billboards 1 CONTROL N/A NIA N1A N1A 786 Freeway 6 CONTROL N/A NIA N1A N1A 308 Arterial 3 CEVMS 10'6"x 22'9° L 12 0 375 Arterial 5 CEVMS 14'0"x 48'0" L 133 1 853 Freeway 9 CEVMS 10'6"x 22'9" R 43 0 537 Arterial 10 CEVMS 14'0"x 48'0" R 133 1 991 Freeway 2 Standard 14'0"x 48'0° L 20 0 644 Arterial 7 Standard 14'0"x 48'0" R 35 1 774 Freeway 8 Standard 10'6"x 22'9" R 40 1 833 Arterial 4 Standard 14'0"x 48'0° L 10 0 770 Freeway *N/A indicates that there were no off-premise advertising in these areas and these values are undefined. ., . � • _:�. r Figure 3. DCZ with a target CEVMS on a freeway. 17 _ . , c:�.� _ .� _ „�,;��i ti = ., � � Figure 4. DCZ with a target CEVMS on an arterial. ti_� - , . f� •r 1 :: J ..�_ � �l_. . .,.;.;. � ...............:... ... . . ..................:.:: � Figure 5. DCZ with a target standard billboard on a freeway. _� S � � 7' rl 4. ��.; ' � � ��'r.! . c,_. _ _ _ - _ _ ' �_�• Figure 6. DCZ with a target standard billboard on an arterial. 18 �'' '� _ ' '�•� -� - � - _ '= � -"r � r �• ' �� v �r / � Figure 7. DCZ for the control condition on a freeway. ^ �f .�,. �� . i � �_ - �i _` ' - - ° � I` • ,� � - - W:J - � .� ���� �� v � �� � ' _ �' _ �� � �- - _ � � _- � - F - . Figure 8. DCZ for the control condition on an arterial. Photometric Measurement of Signs Two primary metrics were used to describe the photometric characteristics of a sample of the CEVMS and standard billboards present at each location: luminance (cd/m�) and contrast(Weber contrast ratio). Photometric Equipment Luminance was measured with a Radiant Imaging ProMetric 1600 Charge-Coupled Device (CCD)photometer with both a 50 mm and a 300 mm lenses. The CCD photometer provided a method of capturing the luminance of an entire scene at one time. The photometric sensors were mounted in a vehicle of similar size to the eye tracking research vehicle. The photometer was located in the experimental vehicle as close to the driver's position as possible and was connected to a laptop computer that stored data as the images were acquired. Measurement Methodology Images of the billboards were acquired using the photometer manufacturer's software. The software provided the mean luminance of each billboard message. To prevent overexposure of 19 images in daylight, neutral density filters were manually affixed to the photometer lens and the luminance values were scaled appropriately. Standard billboards were typically measured only once; however, for CEVMS multiple measures were taken to account for changing content. Photometric measurements were taken during day and night. Measurements were taken by centering the billboard in the photometer's field of view with approximately the equivalent of the width of the billboard on each side and the equivalent of the billboard height above and below the sign. The areas outside of the billboards were included to enable contrast calculations. Standard billboards were assessed at a mean distance of 284 ft(ranging from 570 ft to 43 ft). The CEVMS were assessed at a mean distance of 479 ft(ranging from 972 ft to 220 ft). To include the background regions of appropriate size, the close measurement distances required the use of the 50 mm lens whereas measurements made from longer distances required the 300 mm lens. A significant determinant of the measurement locations was the availability of accessible and safe places from which to measure. The Weber contrast ratio was used because it characterizes a billboard as having negative or positive contrast when compared to its background area.�31� A negative contrast indicates the background areas have a higher mean luminance than the target billboard. A positive contrast indicates the target billboard has a higher mean luminance than the background. Overall, the absolute value of a contrast ratio simply indicates a difference in luminance between an item and its background. From a perceptual perspective luminance and contrast are directly related to the perception of brightness. For example, two signs with equal luminance may be perceived differently with respect to brightness because of differences in contrast. Visual Complexity Regan, Young, Lee and Gordon presented a taxonomic description of the various sources of driver distraction.�32�Potential sources of distraction were discussed in terms of: things brought into the vehicle; vehicle systems; vehicle occupants; moving objects or animals in the vehicle; internalized activity; and external obj ects, events, or activities. The external obj ects may include buildings, construction zones, billboards, road signs, vehicles, and so on. Focusing on the potential for information outside the vehicle to attract(or distract)the driver's attention, Horberry and Edquist developed a taxonomy for out-of-the-vehicle visual information. This suggested taxonomy includes four groupings of visual information: built roadway, situational entities, natural environment, and built environment.�33� These two taxonomies provide an organizational structure for conducting research; however, they do not currently provide a systematic or quantitative way of classifying the level of clutter or visual complexity present in a visual scene. The method proposed by Rozenholtz, Li, and Nakano provides quantitative and perhaps reliable measures of visual clutter.�34� Their approach measures the feature congestion in a visual image. The implementation of the feature congestion measure involves four stages: (1) compute local feature covariance at multiple scales and compute the volume of the local covariance ellipsoid, (2) combine clutter across scale, (3) combine clutter across feature types, and (4)pool over space to get a single measure of clutter for each input image. The implementation that was used employed color, orientation and luminance contrast as features. Presumably, less cluttered 20 images can be visually coded more efficiently than cluttered images. For example, visual clutter can cause decreased recognition performance and greater difficulty in performing visual search.�3s� Participants In the present study participants were recruited at public libraries in the Reading area. A table was set up so that recruiters could discuss the requirements of the experiment with candidates. Individuals who expressed interest in participating were asked to complete a pre-screening form, a record of informed consent, and a department of motor vehicles form consenting to release of their driving record. All participants were between 18 and 64 years of age and held a valid driver's license. The driving record for each volunteer was evaluated to eliminate drivers with excessive violations. The criteria for excluding drivers were as follows: (a) more than one violation in the preceding year, (b) more than three recorded violations; and (c) any driving while intoxicated violation. Forty-three individuals were recruited to participate. Of these, five did not complete the drive because the eye tracker could not be calibrated to track their eye movements accurately. Data from an additional seven participants were excluded as the result of equipment failures (e.g., loose camera). In the end, usable data was collected from 31 participants (12 males, M=46 years; 19 females, M=47 years). Fourteen participants drove at night and 17 drove during the day. Procedures Data were collected from two participants per day (beginning at approximately 12:45 p.m. and 7:00 p.m.). Data collection began on September 18, 2009, and was completed on October 26, 2009. Pre-Data Collection Activities Participants were greeted by two researchers and asked to complete a fitness to drive questionnaire. This questionnaire focused on drivers' self-reports of alertness and use of substances that might impair driving (e.g., alcohol). All volunteers appeared fit. Next, the participant and both researchers moved to the eye tracking calibration location and the test vehicle. The calibration procedure took approximately 20 minutes. Calibration of the eye tracking system entailed development of a profile for each participant. This was accomplished by taking multiple photographs of the participant's face as they slowly rotate their head from side to side. The saved photographs include points on the face for subsequent real-time head and eye tracking. Marked coordinates on the face photographs were edited by the experimenter as needed to improve the real-time face tracking. The procedure also included gaze calibration in which participants gazed at nine points on a wall. These points had been carefully plotted on the wall and correspond to the points in the eye tracking system's world model. Gaze calibration relates the individual participant's gaze vectors to known points in the real world. The eye tracking system uses two pulsating infrared sources mounted on the dashboard to create two corneal glints that are used to calculate gaze direction vectors. The glints were captured at 60 Hz. A second set 21 of cameras (scene cameras), fixed on top of the car close to the driver's viewpoint, were used to produce a video scene of the area ahead. The scene cameras recorded at 25 Hz. A parallax correction algorithm compensated for the distance between the driver's viewpoint and the scene cameras so that later processing could use the gaze vectors to show where in the forward scene the driver was gazing. If it was not possible to calibrate the eye tracking system to a participant, the participant was dismissed and paid for their time. Causes of calibration failure included reflections from eye glasses, participant height(which put their eyes outside the range of the system), and eyelids that obscure a portion of the pupil. Practice After eye-tracker calibration, a short practice drive was made. Participants were shown a map of the route and written turn-by-turn directions prior to beginning the practice drive. Throughout the drive, verbal directions were provided by a GPS device. During the practice drive, a researcher in the rear seat of the vehicle monitored the accuracy of eye tracking. If the system was tracking poorly, additional calibration was performed. If the calibration could not be improved, the participant was paid for their time and dismissed. Data Collection Participants drove two test routes (referred to as route A and B). Each route required 25 to 30 minutes to complete and included both freeway and arterial segments. Route A was 13 miles long and contained 6 DCZs. Route B was 16 miles long and contained 4 DCZs. Combined, participants drove in a total of 10 DCZs. Similar to the practice drive, participants were shown a map of the route and written turn-by-turn directions. A GPS device provided turn-by-turn guidance during the drive. Roughly one half of the participants drove route A first and the remaining participants began with route B. A 5 minute break followed the completion of the first route. During the drives, a researcher in the front passenger seat assisted the driver when additional route guidance was required. The researcher was also tasked with recording near misses and driver errors if these occurred. The researcher in the rear seat monitored the performance of the eye tracker. If the eye tracker performance became unacceptable (i.e., loss of calibration), then the researcher in the rear asked the participant to park in a safe location so that the eye tracker could be recalibrated. This recalibration typically took a minute or two to accomplish. Debriefing After driving both routes, the participants provided comments regarding their drives. The comments were in reference to the use of a navigation system. No questions were asked about billboards. The participants were given $120.00 in cash for their participation. 22 DATA REDUCTION Eye Tracking Measures The Multiple-Analysis of Psychophysical and Performance Signals (MAPPSTM) software was used to reduce the eye tracking data.�36� The software integrates the video output from the scene cameras with the output from the eye tracking software (e.g., gaze vectors). The analysis software provides an interface in which the gaze vectors determined by the eye tracker can be related to areas or obj ects in the scene camera view of the world. Analysts can indicate regions of interest(ROIs)in the scene camera views and the analysis software then assigns gaze vectors to the ROIs. Figure 9 shows a screen capture from the analysis software in which static ROIs have been identified. These static ROIs slice up the scene camera views into six areas. The software also allows for the construction of dynamic ROIs. These are ROIs that move in the video because of own-vehicle movement(e.g., a sign changes position on the display as it is approached by the driver) or because the obj ect moves over time independent of own-vehicle movement(e.g., pedestrian walking along the road, vehicle entering or exiting the road). Static ROIs need only be entered once for the scenario being analyzed whereas dynamic ROIs need to be entered several times for a given DCZ depending on how the object moves along the video scene; however, not every frame needs to be coded with a dynamic ROI since the software interpolates across frames using the 60-Hz data to compute eye movement statistics. .� Q���?_T C,,�_�' I,���.��-� . � ; r � � ��,e �r'- 3;�. ;_. .. �..�� � _ - ;�- ,, �.- �� , ,,��. _ -_ `V_ _ '. 4a , y/'�. f'�` Te� _ ���._.RA Pa� �` ��a '� _ ����'+itl��1�+,. � _ -- I� t� _����_^ �i�d Ft ■ -- ��M� � �� -� L - _—_, _ Figure 9. Screen capture showing static ROIs on a scene video output. The following ROIs were defined with the analysis software: Static ROls These ROIs were entered once into the software for each participant. The static ROIs for the windshield were divided into top and bottom to have more resolution during the coding process. The subsequent analyses in the report combines the top and bottom portion of these ROIs since it appeared that this additional level of resolution was not needed in order to address research questions: • Road ahead: bottom portion (approximately 2/3) of the area of the forward roadway (center camera). 23 • Road ahead top: top portion (approximately 1/3) of the area of the forward roadway (center camera). • Right side of road bottom: bottom portion (approximately 2/3) of the area to the right of the forward roadway (right camera). • Right side of road top: top portion (approximately 1/3) of the area to the right of the forward roadway (right camera). • Left side of road bottom (LSR_B): bottom portion (approximately 2/3) of the area to the left of the forward roadway (left camera). • Left side of road bottom (LSR_T): top portion (approximately 1/3) of the area to the left of the forward roadway (left camera). • Inside vehicle: below the panoramic video scene (outside of the view of the cameras, but eye tracking is still possible). • Top: above the panoramic video scene (outside of the view of the cameras, but eye tracking is still possible). Dynamic ROls These ROIs are created multiple times within a DCZ for stimuli that move relative to the driver: • Driving-related safety risk vehicle which posed a potential safety risk to the driver, defined as a car that is/may turn into the driver's direction of travel at a non-signalized or non-stop-controlled intersection (e.g., a car making a U-turn, a car waiting to turn right, or a car waiting to turn left). These vehicles were actively turning or entering the roadway or appeared to be in a position to enter the roadway. • Target standard billboard: target standard billboard that defines the start and end of the DCZ. • Other standard billboard: standard billboard(s)located in the DCZ, other than the target standard billboard or the target digital billboard. • CEVMS: target digital billboard that defines the start and end of the DCZ. The software determines the gaze intersection for each 60 Hz frame and assigns it to an ROI. In subsequent analyses and discussion, gaze intersections are referred to as gazes. Since ROIs may overlap, the software allows for the specification of priority for each ROI such that the ROI with the highest priority gets the gaze vector intersection assigned to it. For example, an ROI for a CEVMS may also be in the static ROI for the road ahead. 24 The 60 Hz temporal resolution of the eye tracking software does not provide sufficient information to make detailed analysis of saccade characteristics,i such as latency or speed. The analysis software uses three parameters in the determination of a fixation: a fixation radius, fixation duration, and a time out. The determination begins with a single-gaze vector intersection. Any subsequent intersection within a specified radius will be considered part of a fixation if the minimum fixation duration criterion is met. The radius parameter used in this study was 2 degrees and the minimum duration was 100 ms. The 2-degree selection was based on the estimated accuracy of the eye tracking system, as recommended by Recarte and Nunes.�37� The 100 ms minimum duration is consistent with many other published studies; however, some investigators use minimums of as little as 60 ms.�37'38�Because of mini-saccades and noise in the eye tracking system, it is possible to have brief excursions outside the 2 degree window for a fixation. In this study, an excursion time outside the 2-degree radius of less than 90 ms was ignored. Once the gaze intersection fell outside the 2-degree radius of a fixation for more than 90 ms, the process of identifying a fixation began anew. Other Measures Driving Behavior Measures During data collection, the front-seat researcher observed the driver's behavior and the driving environment. The researcher used the following subjective categories in observing the participant's driving behavior: • Driver Error: signified any error on behalf of the driver in which the researcher felt slightly uncomfortable, but not to a significant degree (e.g., driving on an exit ramp too quickly, turning too quickly). • Near Miss: signified any event in which the researcher felt uncomfortable due to driver response to external sources (e.g., slamming on brakes, swerving). A near miss is the extreme case of a driver error. • Incident: signified any event in the roadway which may have had a potential impact on the attention of the driver and/or the flow of traffic (e.g., crash, emergency vehicle, animal, construction, train). These observations were entered into a notebook computer linked to the research vehicle data collection system. Level of Service Estimates For each participant and each DCZ the analyst estimated the level of service of the road as they reviewed the scene camera video. One location per DCZ was selected (approximately halfway through the DCZ)where the number of vehicles in front of the research vehicle was counted. The procedure entailed (1) counting the number of travel lanes visible in the video, (2)using the i During visual scanning the point of gaze alternates between brief pauses(ocular fixations)and rapid shifts (saccades). 25 skip lines on the road to estimate the approximate distance in front of the vehicle that constituted the analysis zone, and (3) counting the number of vehicles present within the analysis zone. Vehicle density was calculated with the formula: Vehicle Density = [(Number of Vehicles in Analysis Zone)/(Distance of Analysis Zone in ft/5280)]/Number of Lanes. Vehicle density is the number of vehicles per mile per lane. Vehicle Speed The speed of the research vehicle was recorded with GPS and a distance measurement instrument. Vehicle speed was used principally to ensure that the eye tracking data was recorded while the vehicle was in motion. RESULTS Results are presented with respect to the photometric measures of signs, the visual complexity of the DCZs, and the eye tracking measures. Photometric measurements were taken and analyzed to characterize the billboards in the study based on their luminance and contrasts, which are related to how bright the signs are perceived to be by drivers. Photometric Measurements Luminance The mean daytime luminance of both the standard billboards and CEVMS was greater than at night. Nighttime luminance measurements reflect the fact that CEVMS use illuminating LED components while standard billboards are often illuminated from below by metal halide lamps. At night, CEVMS have a greater average luminance than standard billboards. Table 3 presents summary statistics for luminance as a function of time of day for the CEVMS and standard billboards. Contrast The daytime and nighttime Weber contrast ratios for both types of billboards are shown in table 3. Both CEVMS and standard billboards had contrast ratios that were close to zero (the surroundings were about equal in brightness to the signs) during the daytime. On the other hand, at night the CEVMS and standard billboards had positive contrast ratios (the signs were brighter than the surrounding), with the CEVMS having higher contrast than the standard billboards. 26 Table 3. Summary of luminance (cd/m�) and contrast (Weber ratio) measurements. Luminance(cd/m�) Contrast Day Mean St. Dev. Mean St.Dev. CEVMS 2126 798.81 -0.10 0.54 Standard Billboard 2993 2787.22 -0.27 0.84 Night CEVMS 56.00 23.16 73.72 56.92 Standard Billboard 17.80 17.11 36.01 30.93 Visual Complexity The DCZs were characterized by their overall visual complexity or clutter. For each DCZ, five pictures were taken from the driver's viewpoint at various locations within the DCZ. In Reading, the pictures were taken from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. In Richmond, one route was photographed from 11:00 a.m. to noon and the other from 2:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. The pictures were taken at the start of the DCZ, quarter of the way through, half of the way through, three quarters of the way through, and at the end of the DCZ. The photographs were analyzed with MATLAB�routines that computed a measure of feature congestion for each image. Figure 10 shows the mean feature congestion measures for each of the DCZ environments. The arterial control condition was shown to have the highest level of clutter as measured by feature congestion. An analysis of variance was performed on the feature congestion measure to determine if the conditions differed significantly from each other. The four conditions with off-premise advertising did not differ significantly with respect to feature congestion; F(3,36) = 1.25,p > 0.05. Based on the feature congestion measure, the results indicate that the four conditions with off-premise advertising were equated with respect to the overall visual complexity of the driving scenes. 4.5D 4.OD ■Arterial 0 3.5D � Highway � �, �.aa � 2.5a I I � 2.aa � i.sa � � i.aa � � a.sa � a.aa Control CEVIVIS Standard Ad�ertising Conditions Figure 10. Mean feature congestion as a function of advertising condition and road type (standard errors for the mean are included in the graph). 27 Effects of Billboards on Gazes to the Road Ahead For each 60 Hz frame, a determination was made as to the direction of the gaze vector. Previous research has shown that gazes do not need to be separated into saccades and fixations before calculating such measures as percent of time or the probability of looking to the road ahead.�39� This analysis examines the degree to which drivers gaze toward the road ahead across the different advertising conditions as a function of road type and time of day. Gazing toward the road ahead is critical for driving and so the analysis examines the degree to which gazes toward this area are affected by the independent variables (advertising type, type of road, and time of day) and their interactions. Generalized estimating equations (GEE)were used to analyze the probability of a participant gazing at driving-related information.�4o,4i> The data for these analyses were not normally distributed and included repeated measures. The GEE model is appropriate for these types of data and analyses. Note that for all results included in this report, Wald statistics were the chosen alternative to likelihood ratio statistics because GEE uses quasi-likelihood instead of maximum likelihood.�42�For this analysis, road ahead included the following ROIs (as previously described and displayed in figure 9): road ahead, road ahead top, and driving-related risks. A logistic regression model for repeated measures was generated by using a binomial response distribution and Logit(i.e., log odds)link function. Only two possible outcomes are allowed when selecting a binomial response distribution. Thus, a variable (RoadAhead)was created to classify a participant's gaze behavior. If the participant gazed toward the road ahead, road ahead top, or driving-related risks, then the value of RoadAhead was set to one. If the participant gazed at any other obj ect in the panoramic scene, then the value of RoadAhead was set to zero. Logistic regression typically models the probability of a success. In the current analysis, a success would be a gaze to road ahead information (RoadAhead = 1) and a failure would be a gaze toward non- road ahead information (RoadAhead= 0). The resultant value was the probability of a participant gazing at road-ahead information. Time of day (day or night), road type (freeway or arterial), advertising condition (CEVMS, standard billboard, or control), and all corresponding second-order interactions were explanatory variables in the logistic regression model. The interaction of advertising condition by road type was statistically significant, x�(2) = 6.3,p= 0.043. Table 4 shows the corresponding probabilities for gazing at the road ahead as a function of advertising condition and road type. Table 4. The probability of gazing at the road ahead as a function of advertising condition and road type. Advertising Condition Arterial Freeway Control 0.92 0.86 CEVMS 0.82 0.73 Standard 0.80 0.77 Follow-up analyses for the interaction used Tukey-Kramer adjustments with an alpha level of 0.05. The arterial control condition had the greatest probability of looking at the road ahead (M= 0.92). This probability differed significantly from the remaining five probabilities. On 28 arterials, the probability of gazing at the road ahead did not differ between the CEVMS (M= 0.82) and the standard billboard (M= 0.80)DCZs. In contrast, there was a significant difference in this probability on freeways, where standard billboard DCZs yielded a higher probability (M= 0.77)than CEVMS DCZs (M = 0.73). The probability of gazing at the road ahead was also significantly higher in the freeway control DCZ (M= 0.86)than in either of the corresponding freeway off-premise advertising DCZs. The probability of gazing at road-ahead information in arterial CEVMS DCZs was not statistically different from the same probability in the freeway control DCZ. Additional descriptive statistics were computed to determine the probability of gazing at the various ROIs that were defined in the panoramic scene. Some of the ROIs depicted in figure 9 were combined in the following fashion for ease of analysis: • Road ahead, road ahead top, and driving-related risks combined to form road ahead. • Left side of road bottom and left side of road top combined to form left side of vehicle. • Right side of road bottom and right side of road top combined to form right side of vehicle. • Inside vehicle and top combined to form participant vehicle. Table 5 presents the probability of gazing at the different ROIs. Table 5. Probability of gazing at ROIs for the three advertising conditions on arterials and freeways. Standard Road T e ROI CEI�MS Billboard Control Arterial CET�MS 0.07 N/A N/A Left Side of T�ehicle 0.06 0.06 0.02 Road ahead 0.82 0.80 0.92 Right Side of T�ehicle 0.03 0.06 0.04 Standard Billboard N/A 0.03 N/A Participant T�ehicle 0.03 0.05 0.02 Freeway CET�MS 0.05 N/A N/A Left Side of T�ehicle 0.08 0.07 0.04 Road ahead 0.73 0.77 0.86 Right Side of T�ehicle 0.09 0.02 0.05 Standard Billboard 0.02* 0.09 N/A Participant T�ehicle 0.04 0.05 0.05 *The CEVMS DCZs on freeways each contained one visible standard billboard. The probability of gazing away from the forward roadway ranged from 0.08 to 0.27. In particular, the probability of gazing toward a CEVMS was greater on arterials (M= 0.07)than on freeways (M= 0.05). In contrast, the probability of gazing toward a target standard billboard was greater on freeways (M= 0.09)than on arterials (M= 0.03). 29 Fixations to CEVMS and Standard Billboards About 2.4 percent of the fixations were to CEVMS. The mean fixation duration to a CEVMS was 388 ms and the maximum duration was 1,251 ms. Figure 11 shows the distribution of fixation durations to CEVMS during the day and night. In the daytime, the mean fixation duration to a CEVMS was 389 ms and at night it was 387 ms. Figure 12 shows the distribution of fixation durations to standard billboards. Approximately 2.4 percent of fixations were to standard billboards. The mean fixation duration to standard billboards was 341 ms during the daytime and 370 ms at night. The maximum fixation duration to standard billboards was 1,284 ms (which occurred at night). For comparison purposes, figure 13 shows the distribution of fixation durations to the road ahead (i.e., top and bottom road ahead ROIs) during the day and night. In the daytime, the mean fixation duration to the road ahead was 365 ms and at night it was 390 ms. Per�entage�istriE�ut�on of Fixatian�uratlon CEVMS Fxa[�o�s ❑a sa 4(] C � m � � ii � 0 � f�i ht F a v 60 N a d0 2C1 0 .:30D 7C0 t.tpp 1.590 1.9�D 50� �JflC 7.30C '.7d0 �2:7W Da•at cr(ms] Figure 11. Distribution of fixation duration for CEVMS in the daytime and nighttime. 30 Per�entage�istriE�ut�on of Fixatian�uratlon S[andard gillb��rd-ixati��s ❑a sa 4(] C � m � � ii � 0 � f�i ht F a v 60 N a d0 2C1 0 .:30D 7C0 t.tpp 1.590 1.9�D 50� �JflC 7.30C '.7d0 �2:7W Da•at cr(ms] Figure 12. Distribution of fixation duration for standard billboards in the daytime and nighttime. Per�entage�istriE�ut�on of Fixatian�uratlon Road Ahead[fap and�o¢[om]FiKalions ❑a sa 4(] C � m � � ii � 0 � f�i ht F a v 60 N a d0 2C1 0 .:30D 7C0 t.tpp 1.590 1.9�D 50� �JflC 7.30C '.7d0 �2:7W Da•at cr(ms] Figure 13. Distribution of fixation duration for road ahead (i.e., top and bottom road ahead ROIs) in the daytime and nighttime. 31 Dwell times on CEVMS and standard billboards were also examined. Dwell time is the duration of back-to-back fixations to the same ROL�43,44� The dwell times represent the cumulative time for the back-to-back fixations. Whereas there may be no long, single fixation to a billboard, there might still be multiple fixations that yield long dwell times. There were a total of 25 separate instances of multiple fixations to CEVMS with a mean of 2.4 fixations (minimum of 2 and maximum of 5). The 25 dwell times came from 15 different participants distributed across four different CEVMS. The mean duration of these dwell times was 994 ms (minimum of 418 ms and maximum of 1,467 ms). For standard billboards, there were a total of 17 separate dwell times with a mean of 3.47 sequential fixations (minimum of 2 fixations and maximum of 8 fixations). The 17 dwell times came from 11 different participants distributed across 4 different standard billboards. The mean duration of these multiple fixations was 1,172 ms (minimum of 418 ms and maximum of 3,319 ms). There were three dwell-time durations that were greater than 2,000 ms. These are described in more detail below. In some cases several dwell times came from the same participant. In order to compute a statistic on the difference between dwell times for CEVMS and standard billboards, average dwell times were computed per participant for the CEVMS and standard billboard conditions. These average values were used in a t-test assuming unequal variances. The difference in average dwell time between CEVMS (M= 981 ms) and standard billboards (M= 1,386 ms) was not statistically significant, t(12) _ -1.40,p > .05. Figure 14 through figure 23 show heat maps for the dwell-time durations to the standard billboards that were greater than 2,000 ms. These heat maps are snapshots from the DCZ and attempt to convey in two dimensions the pattern of gazes that took place in a three dimensional world. The heat maps are set to look back approximately one to two seconds and integrate over time where the participant was gazing in the scene camera video. The green color in the heat map indicates the concentration of gaze over the past one to two seconds. The blue line indicates the gaze trail over the past one to two seconds. Figure 14 through figure 16 are for a DCZ on an arterial at night. The standard billboard was on the right side of the road (indicated by a pink rectangle). There were eight fixations to this billboard, and the single fixations were between 200 to 384 ms in duration. The dwell time for this billboard was 2,019 ms. At the start of the DCZ (see figure 14), the driver was directing his/her gaze to the forward roadway. Approaching the standard billboard, the driver began to fixate on the billboard. However, the billboard was still relatively close to the road ahead ROI. 32 - i ,�.�. - � r�" - � Figure 14. Heat map for the start of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on an arterial. _ � a � 7 � � � M� •� b'� - � - 1 f Figure 15. Heat map for the middle of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on an arterial. �� � 4. � � . � i w, � � �- � 1+� �' � Figure 16. Heat map near the end of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on an arterial. Figure 17 through figure 19 are for a DCZ on a freeway at night. The standard billboard was on the right side of the road (indicated by a green rectangle). There were six consecutive fixations to this billboard, and the single fixations were between 200 and 801 ms in duration. The dwell time for this billboard was 2,753 ms. At the start of the DCZ (see figure 17), the driver was directing his/her gaze to a freeway guide sign in the road ahead and the standard billboard was to the left of the freeway guide sign. As the driver approached the standard billboard, his/her gaze was directed toward the billboard. The billboard was relatively close to the top and bottom road ahead ROIs. Near the end of the DCZ (see figure 19), the billboard was accurately portrayed as being on the right side of the road. 33 � � Figure 17. Heat map for start of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on a freeway. � � " � � ' .� � Figure 18. Heat map for middle of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on a freeway. i i f I - � � . Figure 19. Heat map near the end of a DCZ for a standard billboard at night on a freeway. Figure 20 through figure 23 are for a DCZ on a freeway during the day. The standard billboard was on the right side of the road (indicated by a pink rectangle). This is the same DCZ that was discussed in figure 17 through figure 19. There were six consecutive fixations to this billboard, and the single fixations were between 217 and 767 ms in duration. The dwell time for this billboard was 3,319 ms. At the start of the DCZ (see figure 20), the driver was principally directing his/her gaze to the road ahead. Figure 21 and figure 22 show the location along the DCZ where gaze was directed toward the standard billboard. The billboard was relatively close to the top and bottom road-ahead ROIs. As the driver passed the standard billboard, his/her gaze returned to the road ahead (see figure 23). 34 r ������. f A i :� � �'��• . _ � � '1�-� i� ' �� � _ .��-� sa :� .�, - - �f���. ��r"'-....- ���'i��,. .. ' � { y' �� ` —��' ' � ��',.�'��' �� �__ _ .� J •f.1����� 1 i� �� �Kr.�.� l.l�'"'�, . �'���.�...-��-.��j.�4 .s� Figure 20. Heat map for the start of a DCZ for a standard billboard in the daytime on a freeway. + i i' �:`�� ��' �; : �� . �„ • ;-,���.'�• .� � 1 f�i � . -�`�� Y�+ � .~i. �' ._' +""' � * '�_ �. �y �'-}` � �'�`�� , �+�4�e� '��$�' �. '"*-*7 r-�. * .�*" � z � � �*: -�-.�-� �� . Figure 21. Heat map near the middle of a DCZ for a standard billboard in the daytime on a freeway. f � I � �"� �F-r�i..l _ __ ... i�..i•�.i �����7�� s '1 ,�� '�T- -- ° - Figure 22. Heat map near the end of DCZ for standard billboard in the daytime on a freeway. � � y ��- �-� = _ ;-. ___�_ � �.�. ���..-- r::_ �---�._ ��-_ Figure 23. Heat map at the end of DCZ for standard billboard in the daytime on a freeway. 35 Comparison of Gazes to CEVMS and Standard Billboards The GEE were used to analyze whether a participant gazed more toward CEVMS than toward standard billboards, given that the participant was gazing at off-premise advertising. With this analysis method, a logistic regression model for repeated measures was generated by using a binomial response distribution and Logit link function. First, the data was partitioned to include only those instances when a participant was gazing toward off-premise advertising (either to a CEVMS or to a standard billboard); all other gaze behavior was excluded from the input data set. Only two possible outcomes are allowed when selecting a binomial response distribution. Thus, a variable (SBB_CEVMS)was created to classify a participant's gaze behavior. If the participant gazed toward a CEVMS, the value of SBB_CEVMS was set to one. If the participant gazed toward a standard billboard, then the value of SBB CEVMS was set to zero. Logistic regression typically models the probability of a success. In the current analysis, a success would be a gaze to a CEVMS (SBB_CEVMS = 1) and a failure would be a gaze to a standard billboard (SBB_CEVMS = 0).�A success probability greater than 0.5 indicates there were more successes than failures in the sample. Therefore, if the sample probability of the response variable (i.e., SBB_CEVMS)was greater than 0.5, this would show that participants gazed more toward CEVMS than toward standard billboards when the participants gazed at off- premise advertising. In contrast, if the sample probability of the response variable was less than 0.5, then participants showed a preference to gaze more toward standard billboards than toward CEVMS when directing gazes to off-premise advertising. Time of day (i.e., day or night), road type (i.e., freeway or arterial), and the corresponding interaction were explanatory variables in the logistic regression model. Road type was the only predictor to have a significant effect, x�(1) = 13.17,p < 0.001. On arterials, participants gazed more toward CEVMS than toward standard billboards (M= 0.63). In contrast, participants gazed more toward standard billboards than toward CEVMS when driving on freeways (M= 0.33). Observation of Driver Behavior No near misses or driver errors were observed in Reading. Level of Service The mean vehicle densities were converted to level of service as shown in table 6.�45�As expected, less congestion occurred at night than in the day. In general, there was traffic during the data collection runs. Review of the scene camera data verified that all eye tracking data within the DCZs were recorded while the vehicle was in motion. � Success and failure are not used to reflect the merits of either type of sign,but only for statisrical purposes. 36 Table 6. Level of service as a function of advertising type, road type, and time of day. Arterial Freeway Day Night Day Night Control B A C B CEVMS C A B A Standard A A B A DISCUSSION OF READING RESULTS Overall the probability of gazing at the road ahead was high and similar in magnitude to what has been found in other field studies addressing billboards.�ii,9,i�>For the DCZs on freeways, CEVMS showed a lower proportion of gazes to the road ahead than the standard billboard condition, and both off-premise advertising conditions had lower probability of gazes to the road ahead than the control. On the other hand, on the arterials, the CEVMS and standard billboard conditions did not differ from each other but were significantly different from their respective control condition. Though the CEVMS condition on the freeway had the lowest proportion of gazes to the road ahead, in this condition there was a lower proportion of gazes to CEVMS as compared to the arterials (see table 5 for the trade-off of gazes to the different ROIs). A greater proportion of gazes to other ROIs (left side of the road, right side of the road, and participant vehicle) contributed to the decrease in proportion of gazes to the road ahead. Also, for the CEVMS on freeways, there were a few gazes to a standard billboard located in the same DCZ and there were more gazes distributed to the left and right side of the road than in standard billboard and control conditions. The gazes to ROIs other than CEVMS contributed to the lower probability of gazes to the road ahead in this condition. The control condition on the arterial had buildings along the sides of the road and generally presented a visually cluttered area. As was presented earlier, the feature congestion measure computed on a series of photographs from each DCZ showed a significantly higher feature congestion score for the control condition on arterials as compared to all of the other DCZs. Nevertheless, the highest probability for gazing at the road ahead was seen in the control condition on the arterial. The area with the highest feature congestion, especially on the sides of the road, had the highest probability for drivers looking at the road ahead. Bottom-up or stimulus driven measures of salience or visual clutter have been useful in predicting visual search and the effects of visual salience in laboratory tasks.�34,46> These measures of salience basically consider the stimulus characteristics (e.g., size, color, brightness)independent of the requirements of the task or plans that an individual may have. Models of visual salience may predict that buildings and other prominent features on the side of the road may be visually salient objects and thus would attract a driver's attention.�47�Figure 24 shows an example of a roadway photograph that was analyzed with the Salience Toolbox based on the Itti et al. implementation of a saliency based model of bottom-up attention.�48'49� The numbered circles in figure 24 are the first through fifth salient areas selected by the software. Based on this software, the most salient areas in the photographs are the buildings on the sides of the road where the road ahead (and a car)is the fifth selected salient area. 37 � � r �- f / L� � Figure 24. Example of identified salient areas in a road scene based on bottom-up analysis. It appears that in the present study participants principally kept their eyes on the road even in the presence of visual clutter on the sides of the road, which supports the hypothesis that drivers tend to look toward information relevant to the task at hand.�so,26,���In the case of the driving task, visual clutter may be more of an issue with respect to crowding that may affect the driver's ability to detect visual information in the periphery.�si� Crowding is generally defined as the negative effect of nearby objects or features on visual discrimination of a target.�s�� Crowding impairs the ability to recognize objects in clutter and principally affects perception in peripheral vision. However, crowing effects were not analyzed in the present study. Stimulus salience, clutter, and the nature of the task at hand interact in visual perception. For tasks such as driving the task demands tend to outweigh stimulus salience when it comes to gaze control. Clutter may be more of an issue with the detection and recognition of objects in peripheral vision (e.g., detecting a sign on the side of the road)that are surrounded by other stimuli that result in a crowding effect. The mean fixation durations to CEVMS, standard billboards, and the road ahead were found to be very similar. Also, there were no long fixations (greater than 2,000 ms)to CEVMS or standard billboards. The examination of multiple sequential fixations to CEVMS yielded average dwell times that were less than 1,000 ms. However, when examining the tails of the distribution, there were three dwell times to standard billboards that were in excess of 2,000 ms (the three dwell times came from three different participants to two different billboards). These three standard billboards were dwelled upon when they were near the road ahead area but drivers quit gazing at the signs as they neared them and the signs were no longer near the forward field of view. Though there were three dwell times for standard billboards greater than 2,000 ms, the difference in average dwell times for CEVMS and standard billboards was not significant. Using a gaze duration of 2,000 ms away from the road ahead as a criterion indicative of increased risk has been developed principally as it relates to looking inside the vehicle to in- vehicle information systems and other devices (e.g., for texting)where the driver is indeed looking completely away from the road ahead.�14,s3,s4> The fixations to the standard billboards in the present case showed a long dwell time for a billboard. However, unlike gazing or fixating inside the vehicle, the driver's gaze was within the forward roadway where peripheral vision could be used to monitor for hazards and for vehicle control. Peripheral vision has been shown to be important for lane keeping, visual search orienting and monitoring of surrounding obj ects.�ss,s6> 38 The results showed that drivers were more likely to gaze at CEVMS on arterials and at standard billboards on freeways. Though every attempt was made to select CEVMS and standard billboard DCZs that were equated on important parameters (e.g., which side of the road the sign was located on, type of road, level of visual clutter), the CEVMS DCZs on freeways had a greater setback from the road (133 ft for both CEVMS)than the standard billboards (10 and 35 ft). Signs with greater setback from the road would in a sense move out of the forward view (road ahead) more quickly than signs that are closer to the road. The CEVMS and standard billboards on the arterials were more closely matched with respect to setback from the road (12 and 43 ft for CEVMS and 20 and 40 ft for standard billboards). The differences in setback from the road for CEVMS and standard billboards may also account for differences in dwell times to these two types of billboards. However, on arterials where the CEVMS and standard billboards were more closely matched there was only one long dwell time (greater than 2,000 ms) and it was to a standard billboard at night. 39 RICHMOND The objectives of the second study were the same as those in the first study, and the design of the Richmond data collection effort was very similar to that employed in Reading. This study was conducted to replicate as closely as possible the design of Reading in a different driving environment. The independent variables included the type of DCZ (CEVMS, standard billboard, or no off-premise advertising), time of day (day or night) and road type (freeway or arterial). As with Reading the time of day was a between-subjects variable and the other variables were within subj ects. METHOD Selection of DCZ Limits Selection of the DCZ limits procedure was the same as that employed in Reading. Advertising Type Three DCZ types (similar to those used in Reading)were used in Richmond: • CEVMS. DCZs contained one target CEVMS. • Standard billboard. DCZs contained one target standard billboard. • Control conditions. DCZs did not contain any off-premise advertising. There were an equal number of CEVNIS and standard billboard DCZs on freeways and arterials. Also, there two DCZ that did not contain off-premise advertising with one located on a freeway and the other on an arterial. Table 7 is an inventory of the target employed in this second study. Table 7. Inventory of target billboards in Richmond with relevant parameters. Copy Setback Other DCZ Advertising Dimensions Side of �.om Road Stmirinrd Approach Roadway Type t Road t Billboards Length(ft) Type 5 CONTROL N/A N!A ' N/A N!A 710 Arterial 3 CONTROL N/A N!A ' N/A N!A 845 Freeway 9 CEVMS 14'0°x28'0° L 37 0 696 Arterial 13 CEVMS 14'0"x 28'0" R 37 0 602 Arterial 2 CEVMS 12'S"x40'0" R 91 0 297 Freeway 8 CEVMS 11'0 x 23'0" L 71 0 321 Freeway 10 Standard 14'0"x48'0° L 79 1 857 Arterial 12 Standard 10'6"x 45'3" R 79 2 651 Arterial 1 Standard 14'0"x48'0° L 87 0 997 Freeway 7 Standard 14'0"x 48'0" R 88 0 816 Freeway *N/A indicates that there were no off-premise advertising in these areas and these values are undefined. 40 Figure 25 through figure 30 below represent various pairings of DCZ type and road type. Target off-premise billboards are indicated by red rectangles. „ . ����_. .. :..,:. - � a - � � � ._ Figure 25. Example of a CEVMS DCZ on a freeway. - � � ����:. Figure 26. Example of CEVMS DCZ an arterial. :� � �.:. /■ a � � Figure 27. Example of a standard billboard DCZ on a freeway. 41 r,: ._._ , a � ..:�.:.:. Figure 28. Example of a standard billboard DCZ on an arterial. ��� � - — a� . � '' - ..-_ � � - Figure 29. Example of a control DCZ on a freeway. � �. ''.� � �- � ------- � - � J=_���_ ��� - —�.�. 4 .� Figure 30. Example of a control DCZ on an arterial. Photometric Measurement of Signs The methods and procedures for the photometric measures were the same as for Reading. Visual Complexity The methods and procedures for visual complexity measurement were the same as for Reading. 42 Participants A total of 41 participants were recruited for the study. Of these, 6 participants did not complete data collection because of an inability to properly calibrate with the eye tracking system, and 11 were excluded because of equipment failures. A total of 24 participants (13 male, M=28 years; 11 female, M= 25 years) successfully completed the drive. Fourteen people participated during the day and 10 participated at night. Procedures Research participants were recruited locally by means of visits to public libraries, student unions, community centers, etc. A large number of the participants were recruited from a nearby university, resulting in a lower mean participant age than in Reading. Participant Testing Two people participated each day. One person participated during the day beginning at approximately 12:45 p.m. The second participated at night beginning at around 7:00 p.m. Data collection ran from November 20, 2009, through Apri123, 2010. There were several long gaps in the data collection schedule due to holidays and inclement weather. Pre-Data Collection Activities This was the same as in Reading. Practice Drive Except for location, this was the same as in Reading. Data Collection The procedure was much the same as in Reading. On average, each test route required approximately 30 to 35 minutes to complete. As in Reading the routes included a variety of freeway and arterial driving segments. One route was 15 miles long and contained two target CEVMS, two target standard billboards, and two DCZs with no off-premise advertising. The second route was 20 miles long and had two target CEVMS and two target standard billboards. The data collection drives in this second study were longer than those in Reading. The eye tracking system had problems dealing with the large files that resulted. To mitigate this technical difficulty, participants were asked to pull over in a safe location during the middle of each data collection drive so that new data files could be initiated. Upon completion of the data collection, the participant was instructed to return to the designated meeting location for debriefing. Debriefing This was the same as in Reading. 43 DATA REDUCTION Eye Tracking Measures The approach and procedures were the same as used in Reading. Other Measures The approach and procedures were the same as used in Reading. RESULTS Photometric Measurement of Signs The photometric measurements were performed using the same equipment and procedures that were employed in Reading with a few minor changes. Photometric measurements were taken during the day and at night. Measurements of the standard billboards were taken at an average distance of 284 ft, with maximum and minimum distances of 570 ft and 43 ft, respectively. The average distance of ineasurements for the CEVMS was 479 ft, with maximum and minimum distances of 972 ft and 220 ft, respectively. Again, the distances employed were significantly affected by the requirement to find a safe location on the road from which to take the measurements. Luminance The mean luminance of CEVMS and standard billboards, during daytime and nighttime are shown below in table 8. The results here are similar to those for Reading. Contrast The daytime and nighttime Weber contrast ratios for both types of billboards are shown in table 8. During the day, the contrast ratios of both CEVMS and standard billboards were close to zero (the surroundings were about equal in brightness to the signs). At night, the CEVMS and standard billboards had positive contrast ratios. Similar to Reading, the CEVMS showed a higher contrast ratio than the standard billboards at night. Table 8. Summary of luminance (cd/m�) and contrast(Weber ratio) measurements. Luminance(cdhn�) Contrast Day Mean St.Dev. Mean St.Dev. CEVMS 2134 798.70 -020 0.53 Standard Billboard 3063 2730.92 0.03 0.32 Night CEVMS 56.44 16.61 69.70 59.18 Standard Billboard 8.00 5.10 6.56 3.99 44 Visual Complexity As with Reading the feature congestion measure was used to estimate the level of visual complexity/clutter in the DCZs. The analysis procedures were the same as for Reading. Figure 31 shows the mean feature congestion measures for each of the advertising types (standard errors are included in the figure). Unlike the results for Reading, the selected off- premise advertising DCZs for Richmond differed in terms of inean feature congestion;F(3, 36) _ 3.95,p = 0.016. Follow up t-tests with an alpha of 0.05 showed that the CEVMS DCZs on arterials had significantly lower feature congestion than all of the other off-premise advertising conditions. None of the remaining DCZs with off-premise advertising differed from each other. The selection of DCZs for the conditions with off-premise advertising took into account the type of road, the side of the road the target billboard was placed, and the perceived level of visual clutter. Based on the feature congestion measure, these results indicated that the conditions with off-premise advertising were not equated with respect to level of visual clutter. 4.50 ■Arterial 4.00 Highway 0 3.50 � U o �.00 I � _ i 2.so z � � � z.00 � � � l.so i.00 0.50 0.00 Control CEVNIS Standard Advertising Condition Figure 3L Mean feature congestion as a function of advertising condition and road type. Effects of Billboards on Gazes to the Road Ahead As was done for the data from Reading, GEE were used to analyze the probability of a participant gazing at the road ahead. A logistic regression model for repeated measures was generated by using a binomial response distribution and Logit link function. The resultant value was the probability of a participant gazing at the road ahead (as previously defined). Time of day (day or night), road type (freeway or arterial), advertising type (CEVMS, standard billboard, or control), and all corresponding second-order interactions were explanatory variables in the logistic regression model. The interaction of advertising type by road type was statistically significant, x�(2) = 14.19,p < 0.001. Table 9 shows the corresponding probability of gazing at the road ahead as a function of advertising condition and road type. 45 Table 9. The probability of gazing at the road ahead as a function of advertising condition and road type. Advertising Condition Arterial Freeway Control 0.78 0.92 CEVMS 0.76 0.82 Standard 0.81 0.85 Follow-up analyses for the interaction used Tukey-Kramer adjustments with an alpha level of 0.05. The freeway control had the greatest probability of gazing at the road ahead (M= 0.92). This probability differed significantly from the remaining five probabilities. On arterials, there were no significant differences among the probabilities of gazing at the road ahead among the three advertising conditions. On freeways, there was no significant difference between the probability associated with CEVMS DCZs and the probability associated with standard billboard DCZs. Additional descriptive statistics were computed for the three advertising types to determine the probability of gazing at the ROIs that were defined in the panoramic scene. As was done with the data from Reading some of the ROIs were combined for ease of analysis. Table 10 presents the probability of gazing at the different ROIs. Table 10. Probability of gazing at ROIs for the three advertising conditions on arterials and freeways. Standard Road T e ROI CEI�MS Billboard Control Arterial CET�MS 0.06 N/A N/A Left Side of T�ehicle 0.03 0.05 0.04 Road ahead 0.76 0.81 0.78 Right Side of T�ehicle 0.07 0.06 0.09 Standard Billboard N/A 0.02 N/A Participant T�ehicle 0.07 0.06 0.09 Freeway CET�MS 0.05 N/A N/A Left Side of T�ehicle 0.03 0.01 0.01 Road ahead 0.82 0.85 0.92 Right Side of T�ehicle 0.04 0.04 0.03 Standard Billboard N/A 0.04 N/A Participant T�ehicle 0.06 0.06 0.05 The probability of gazing away from the forward roadway ranged from 0.08 to 0.24. In particular, the probability of gazing toward a CEVMS was slightly greater on arterials (M= 0.06)than on freeways (M= 0.05). In contrast, the probability of gazing toward a standard billboard was greater on freeways (M= 0.04)than on arterials (M= 0.02). In both situations, the probability of gazing at the road ahead was greatest on freeways. 46 Fixations to CEVMS and Standard Billboards About 2.5 percent of the fixations were to CEVMS. The mean fixation duration to a CEVMS was 371 ms and the maximum fixation duration was 1,335 ms. Figure 32 shows the distribution of fixation durations to CEVMS during the day and at night. In the daytime, the mean fixation duration to a CEVMS was 440 ms and at night it was 333 ms. Approximately 1.5 percent of the fixations were to standard billboards. The mean fixation duration to standard billboards was 318 ms and the maximum fixation duration was 801 ms. Figure 33 shows the distribution of fixation durations for standard billboards. The mean fixation duration to a standard billboard was 313 ms and 325 ms during the day and night, respectively. For comparison purposes, figure 34 shows the distribution of fixation durations to the road ahead during the day and night. In the daytime, the mean fixation duration to the road ahead was 378 ms and at night it was 358 ms. Per�entage�istriE�ut�on of Fixatian�uratlon CEVMS Fxa[�o�s ❑a sa 4(] C � m � � ii � 0 � f�i ht F a v 60 N a d0 2C1 0 .:30D 7C0 t.tpp 1.590 1.9�D 50� �JflC 7.30C '.7d0 �2:7W Da•at cr(ms] Figure 32. Fixation duration for CEVMS in the day and at night. 47 Per�entage�istriE�ut�on of Fixatian�uratlon Slancard Bdlboar�s Fixa[ione ❑a sa 4(] C � m � � ii � 0 � f�i ht F a v 60 N a d0 2C1 0 .:30D 7C0 t.tpp 1.590 1.9�D 50� �JflC 7.30C '.7d0 �2:7W Da•at cr(ms] Figure 33. Fixation duration for standard billboards in the day and at night. Per�entage�istriE�ut�on of Fixatian�uratlon Road Ahead[fap and�o¢[om]FiKalions ❑a sa 4(] C � m � � ii � 0 � f�i ht F a v 60 N a d0 2C1 0 .:30D 7C0 t.tpp 1.590 1.9�D 50� �JflC 7.30C '.7d0 �2:7W Da•at cr(ms] Figure 34. Fixation duration for the road ahead in the day and at night. 48 As was done with the data for Reading the record of fixations was examined to determine dwell times to CEVMS and standard billboards. There were a total of 21 separate dwell times to CEVMS with a mean of 2.86 sequential fixations (minimum of 2 fixations and maximum of 6 fixations). The 21 dwell times came from 12 different participants and four different CEVMS. The mean dwell time duration to the CEVMS was 1,039 ms (minimum of 500 ms and maximum of 2,720 ms). There was one dwell time greater than 2,000 ms to CEVMS. To the standard billboards there were 13 separate dwell times with a mean of 2.31 sequential fixations (minimum of 2 fixations and maximum of 3 fixations). The 13 dwell times came from 11 different participants and four different standard billboards. The mean dwell time duration to the standard billboards was 687 ms (minimum of 450 ms and maximum of 1,152 ms). There were no dwell times greater than 2,000 ms to standard billboards. In some cases several dwell times came from the same participant. To compute a statistic on the difference between dwell times for CEVMS and standard billboards, average dwell times were computed per participant for the CEVMS and standard billboard conditions. These average values were used in a t-test assuming unequal variances. The difference in average dwell time between CEVMS (M= 1,096 ms) and standard billboards (M= 674 ms)was statistically significant, t(14) =2.23,p = .043. Figure 35 through figure 37 show heat maps for the dwell-time durations to the CEVMS that were greater than 2,000 ms. The DCZ was on a freeway during the daytime. The CEVMS is located on the left side of the road (indicated by an orange rectangle). There were three fixations to this billboard, and the single fixations were between 651 ms and 1,335 ms. The dwell time for this billboard was 2,270 ms. Figure 35 shows the first fixation toward the CEVMS. There are no vehicles near the participant in his/her respective travel lane or adj acent lanes. In this situation, the billboard is relatively close to the road ahead ROI. Figure 36 shows a heat map later in the DCZ where the driver continues to look at the CEVMS. The heat map does not overlay the CEVMS in the picture since the heat map has integrated over time where the driver was gazing. The CEVMS has moved out of the area because of the vehicle moving down the road. However, visual inspection of the video and eye tracking statistics showed that the driver was fixating on the CEVMS. Figure 37 shows the end of the sequential fixations to the CEVMS. The driver returns to gaze directly in front of the vehicle. Once the CEVMS was out of the forward field of view, the driver quit looking at the billboard. . - � � � � - .� r..r� - � Figure 35. Heat map for first fixation to CEVMS with long dwell time. 49 ��"� � .. f i _ ��.� F, - �. - ' _� W. �� - . � i � � Figure 36. Heat map for later fixations to CEVMS with long dwell time. _„ : � ',r_� _ �' �r,�....� ,� ��f l" ,,..� # .! � - , ,, Figure 37. Heat map at end of fixations to CEVMS with long dwell time. Comparison of Gazes to CEVMS and Standard Billboards As was done for the data from Reading, GEE were used to analyze whether a participant gazed more toward CEVMS than toward standard billboards, given that the participant was looking at off-premise advertising. Recall that a sample probability greater than 0.5 indicated that participants gazed more toward CEVMS than standard billboards when the participants gazed at off-premise advertising. In contrast, if the sample probability was less than 0.5, participants showed a preference to gaze more toward standard billboards than CEVMS when directing visual attention to off-premise advertising. Time of day (i.e., day or night), road type (i.e., freeway or arterial), and the corresponding interaction were explanatory variables in the logistic regression model. Time of day had a significant effect on participant gazes toward off-premise advertising x�(1) =4.46,p = 0.035. Participants showed a preference to gaze more toward CEVMS than toward standard billboards during both times of day. During the day the preference was only slight(M = 0.52), but at night the preference was more pronounced (M= 0.71). Road type was also a significant predictor of where participants directed their gazes at off-premise advertising x�(1) = 3.96,p= 0.047. Participants gazed more toward CEVMS than toward standard billboards while driving on both types of roadways. However, driving on freeways yielded a slight preference for CEVNIS over standard billboards (M = 0.55), but driving on arterials resulted in a larger preference in favor of CEVMS (M = 0.68). 50 Observation of Driver Behavior No near misses or driver errors occurred. Level of Service Table 11 shows the level of service as a function of advertising type, type of road, and time of day. As expected, there was less congestion during the nighttime runs than in the daytime. In general, there was traffic during the data collection runs; however, the eye tracking data were recorded while the vehicles were in motion. Table 11. Estimated level of service as a function of advertising condition, road type, and time of day. Arterial Freeway Day Night Day Night Control B A C B CEVMS B A B A Standard C A C C DISCUSSION OF RICHMOND RESULTS Overall the probability of looking at the forward roadway was high across all conditions and consistent with the findings from Reading and previous related research.�ii,9,i�� In this second study the CEVMS and standard billboard conditions did not differ from each other. For the DCZs on arterials there were no significant differences among the control, CEVMS, and standard billboard conditions. On the other hand, while the CEVMS and standard billboard conditions on the freeways did not differ from each other, they were significantly different from their respective control conditions. The control condition on the freeway principally had trees along the sides of the road and the signs that were present were freeway signs located in the road ahead ROI. Measures such as feature congestion rated the three DCZs on freeways as not being statistically different from each other. These types of ineasures have been useful in predicting visual search and the effects of visual salience in laboratory tasks.�34�Models of visual salience may predict that, at least during the daytime, trees on the side of the road may be visually salient objects that would attract a driver's attention.�47�However, it appears that in the present study, participants principally kept their eyes on the road ahead. The mean fixations to CEVMS, standard billboards, and the road ahead were found to be similar in magnitude with no long fixations. Examination of dwell times showed that there was one long dwell time for a CEVMS greater than 2,000 ms and it occurred in the daytime on a sign located on the left side of the road on a freeway DCZ. Furthermore, when averaging among participants the mean dwell time for CEVMS was significantly longer than to standard billboards, but still under 2,000 ms. For the dwell time greater than 2,000 ms, examination of the scene camera video and eye tracking heat maps showed that the driver was initially looking toward the forward roadway and made a first fixation to the sign. Three fixations were made to the sign and then the 51 driver started looking back to the road ahead as the sign moved out of the forward field of view. On the video there were no vehicles near the subj ect driver's own lane or in adj acent lanes. Only the central2 degrees of vision, foveal vision, provide resolution sharp enough for reading or recognizing fine detaiL�s��However, useful information for reading can be extracted from parafoveal vision, which encompasses the central 10 degrees of vision.�s��More recent research on scene gist recognition3 has shown that peripheral vision (beyond parafoveal vision)is more useful than central vision for recognizing the gist of a scene.�58� Scene gist recognition is a critically important early stage of scene perception, and influences more complex cognitive processes such as directing attention within a scene and facilitating object recognition, both of which are important in obtaining information while driving. The results of this study do show one duration of eyes off the forward roadway greater than 2,000 ms, the duration at which Klauer et al. observed near-crash/crash risk at more than twice those of normal, baseline driving.�14,s3�When looking at the tails of the fixation distributions, few fixations were greater than 1,000 ms, with the longest fixation being equal to 1,335 ms.�s3,s4> The one long dwell time on a CEVMS that was observed was a rare event in this study, and review of the video and eye tracking data suggests that the driver was effectively managing acquisition of visual information while driving and fixated on the advertising. However, additional work needs to be done to derive criteria for gazing or fixating away from the forward road view where the road scene is still visible in peripheral vision. The results showed that drivers are more likely to look at CEVMS than standard billboards during the nighttime across the conditions tested (at night the average probability of gazing at CEVMS was M= 0.71). CEVMS do have greater luminance than standard billboards at night and also have higher contrast. The CEVMS have the capability of being lit up so that they would appear as very bright signs to drivers (for example, up to about10,000 cd/m�for a white square on the sign.). However, our measurements of these signs showed an average luminance of about 56 cd/m�. These signs would be conspicuous in a nighttime driving environment but significantly less so than other light sources such as vehicle headlights. Drivers were also more likely to look at CEVMS than standard billboards on both arterials and freeways, with a higher probability of gazes on arterials. In this second study, CEVMS and standard billboards were more nearly equated with respect to setback from the road. Gazes to the road ahead were not significantly different between CEVMS and standard billboard DCZs across conditions and the proportion of gazes to the road ahead were consistent with previous research. One long dwell time for a CEVMS was observed in this study; however, it occurred in the daytime where the luminance and contrast(affecting the perceived brightness) of these signs are similar to those for standard billboards. 3 "Scene gist recognition"refers to the element of human cognition tl�at enables us to determine the meaning of a scene and categorize it by type(e.g.,a beach,an office)almost immediately upon seeing it. 52 GENERAL DISCUSSION This study was conducted to investigate the effect of CEVMS on driver visual behavior in a roadway driving environment. An instrumented vehicle with an eye tracking system was used. Roads containing CEVMS, standard billboards, and control areas with no off-premise advertising were selected. The CEVMS and standard billboards were measured with respect to luminance, location, size, and other relevant variables to characterize these visual stimuli. Unlike previous studies on digital billboards, the present study examined CEVMS as deployed in two United States cities and did not contain dynamic video or other dynamic elements. The CEVMS changed content approximately every 8 to 10 seconds, consistent within the limits provided by FHWA guidance.��� In addition, the eye tracking system used had nearly a 2-degree level of resolution that provided significantly more accuracy in determining what obj ects the drivers were gazing or fixating on as compared to some previous field studies examining CEVMS. CONCLUSIONS Do CEVMS attract drivers' attention away from the forward roadway and other driving relevant stimuli? Overall, the probability of looking at the road ahead was high across all conditions. In Reading, the CEVMS condition had a lower proportion of gazes to the road ahead than the standard billboard condition on the freeways. Both of the off-premise advertising conditions had a lower proportion of gazes to the road ahead than the control condition on the freeway. The lower proportion of gazes to the road ahead can be attributed to the overall distribution of gazes away from the road ahead and not just to the CEVMS. On the other hand, for the arterials the CEVMS and standard billboard conditions did not differ from each other, but both had a lower proportion of gazes to the road ahead compared to the control. In Richmond there were no differences among the three advertising conditions on the arterials. However, for the freeways the CEVNIS and standard billboard conditions did not differ from each other but had a lower proportion of gazes to the road ahead than the control. The control conditions differed across studies. In Reading the control condition on arterials showed 92 percent for gazing at the road ahead while on the freeway it was 86 percent. On the other hand, in Richmond the control condition for arterials was 78 percent and for the freeway it was 92 percent. The control conditions on the freeway differed across the two studies. In Reading there were businesses off to the side of the road; whereas in Richmond the sides of the road were mostly covered with trees. The control conditions on the arterials also differed across cities in that both contained businesses and on-premise advertising; however, in Reading arterials had four lanes and in Richmond arterials had six lanes. The reason for these differences across cities was that these control conditions were selected to match the other conditions (CEVMS and standard billboards)that the drivers would experience in the two respective cities. Also, the selection of DCZs was obviously constrained by what was available on the ground in these cities. The results for the off-premise advertising conditions are consistent with Lee et al., who observed that 76 percent of drivers' time was spent lookin at the road ahead in the CEVMS scenario and 75 percent in the standard billboard scenario.�9�However, it should be kept in mind 53 that drivers did gaze away from the road ahead even when no off-premise advertising was present and that the presence of clutter or salient visual stimuli did not necessarily control where drivers gazed. Do glances to CEVMS occur that would suggest a decrease in safety? In DCZs containing CEVMS, about 2.5 percent of the fixations were to CEVMS (about 2.4 percent to standard billboards). The results for fixations are similar to those reported in other field data collection efforts that included advertising signs.�i�,ii,9,13>Fixations greater than 2,000 ms were not observed for CEVMS or standards billboards. However, an analysis of dwell times to CEVMS showed a mean dwell time of 994 ms (maximum of 1,467 ms)for Reading and a mean of 1,039 ms (maximum of 2,270 ms) for Richmond. Statistical comparisons of average dwell times between CEVMS and standard billboards were not significant in Reading; however, in Richmond the average dwell times to CEVMS were significantly longer than to standard billboards, though below 2,000 ms. There was one dwell time greater than 2,000 ms to a CEVMS across the two cities. On the other hand, for standard billboards there were three long dwell times in Reading; there were no long dwell times to these billboards in Richmond. Review of the video data for these four long dwell times showed that the signs were not far from the forward view when participants were fixating. Therefore, the drivers still had access to information about what was in front of them through peripheral vision. As the analyses of gazes to the road ahead showed, drivers distributed their gazes away from the road ahead even when there were no off-premise billboards present. Also, drivers gazed and fixated on off-premise signs even though they were generally irrelevant to the driving task. However, the results did not provide evidence indicating that CEVMS were associated with long glances away from the road that may reflect an increase in risk. When long dwell times occurred to CEVMS or standard billboards, the road ahead was still in the driver's field of view. Do drivers look at CEVMS more than at standard billboards? The drivers were generally more likely to gaze at CEVMS than at standard billboards. However, there was some variability between the two locations and between type of roadway (arterial or freeway). In Reading, the participants looked more often at CEVMS when on arterials, whereas they looked more often at standard billboards when on freeways. In Richmond, the drivers looked at CEVMS more than standard billboards no matter the type of road they were on, but as in Reading the preference for gazing at CEVMS was greater on arterials (68 percent on arterials and 55 percent on freeways). The slower speed on arterials and sign placement may present drivers with more opportunities to gaze at the signs. In Richmond, the results showed that drivers gazed more at CEVMS than standard billboards at night; however, for Reading no effect for time of day was found. CEVMS do have higher luminance and contrast than standard billboards at night. The results showed mean luminance of about 56 cd/m�in the two cities where testing was conducted. These signs would appear clearly visible but not overly bright. 54 SUMMARY The results of these studies are consistent with a wealth of research that has been conducted on vision in natural environments.�26'��'�i� In the driving environment, gaze allocation is principally controlled by the requirements of the task Consistent results were shown for the proportion of gazes to the road ahead for off-premise advertising conditions across the two cities. Average fixations were similar to CEVMS and standard billboards with no long single fixations evident for either condition. Across the two cities, four long dwell times were observed: one to a CEVMS on a freeway in the day, two to the same standard billboard on a freeway (once at night and once in the daytime), and one to a standard billboard on an arterial at night. Examination of the scene video and eye tracking data indicated that these long dwell times occurred when the billboards were close to the forward field of view where peripheral vision could still be used to gather visual information on the forward roadway. The present data suggest that the drivers in this study directed the maj ority of their visual attention to areas of the roadway that were relevant to the task at hand (i.e., the driving task). Furthermore, it is possible, and likely, that in the time that the drivers looked away from the forward roadway, they may have elected to glance at other obj ects in the surrounding environment(in the absence of billboards)that were not relevant to the driving task. When billboards were present, the drivers in this study sometimes looked at them, but not such that overall attention to the forward roadway decreased. LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH In this study the participants drove a research vehicle with two experimenters on board. The participants were provided with audio turn-by-turn directions and consequently did not have a taxing navigation task to perform. The participants were instructed to drive as they normally would. However, the presence of researchers in the vehicle and the nature of the driving task do limit the degree to which one may generalize the current results to other driving situations. This is a general limitation of instrumented vehicle research. The two cities employed in the study appeared to follow common practices with respect to the content change frequency (every 8 to 10 seconds) and the brightness of the CEVMS. The current results would not generalize to situations where these guidelines are not being followed. Participant recruiting was done through libraries, community centers and at a university. This recruiting procedure resulted in a participant demographic distribution that may not be representative of the general driving population. The study employed a head-free eye tracking device to increase the realism of the driving situation (no head-mounted gear). However, the eye tracker had a sampling rate of 60 Hz, which made determining saccades problematic. The eye tracker and analyses software employed in this effort represents a significant improvement in technology over previous similar efforts in this area. The study focused on obj ects that were 1,000 feet or less from the drivers. This was dictated by the accuracy of the eye tracking system and the ability to resolve obj ects for data reduction. In addition, the geometry of the roadway precluded the consideration of objects at great distances. 55 The study was performed on actual roadways, and this limited the control of the visual scenes except via the route selection process. In an ideal case, one would have had roadways with CEVMS, standard billboards, and no off-premise advertising and in which the context surrounding digital and standard billboards did not differ. This was not the case in this study, although such an exclusive environment would be inconsistent with the experience of most drivers. This presents issues with the interpretation of the specific contributions made by billboards and the environment to the driver's behavior. Sign content was not investigated (or controlled) in the present study, but may be an important factor to consider in future studies that investigate the distraction potential of advertising signs. Investigations about the effect of content could potentially be performed in driving simulators where this variable could be systematically controlled and manipulated. 56 REFERENCES 1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Policy Statement. 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The Contributions of Central Versus Peripheral Vision to Scene Gist Recognition. .Iournal of Vision, 9, 2009, 1-16. 60 Attachment " E " CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS,FLORIDA DRAFT MINUTES PLANNING AND ZONING BOARD/LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY REGULAR MEETING-JiJNE 4,2014 PAGE 4 OF 8 PUBLIC HEARINGS 501. Community Development Department—Planning Division The Community Development Department — Planning Division Requests That The Planning And Zoning Board Consider Ordinance 2014-14*, Which Proposes To Amend The City's Regulations Regarding Off-Premises Signs, Commonly Referred To As Billboards And Electronic Message Centers. Note: This Ordinance should have been listed as Ordinance 2014-13 Mr. Bobby Howell, AICP, Planner, Community Development Department explained that the Ordinance deals with both Billboards and Electronic Message Centers, and presented the Billboard aspect of the Ordinance. Mr. Stevenson advised the Board that, "We are not talking about any additional billboard. It's still just the two that are on (U.S.) 17-92." Further comments. Following, Mr. Steve Richart, Urban Beautification Division Services, Community Development Department presented the Electronic Message Center aspect of the Ordinance. Much discussion ensued on the maximum square footage of the Electronic Message Centers remaining the same; allowable speed settings, which are fairly universal; government safety studies; and insurance company accident reports. There was a concern that the two second interval will create flashing billboards in the City. Mr. Richart stated, "Flashing is not allowed." Further comments. "I WOULD LIKE TO MOVE THAT ITEM `501' BY THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT ASKING TO CONSIDER ORDINANCE 2014- 13 BE APPROVED AS RECOMMENDED BY STAFF." MOTION BY BOARD MEMBER POE. SECONDED BY BOARD MEMBER PHILLIPS. DISCUSSION. Chairperson Henderson opened "Public Input". No one spoke. Chairperson Henderson closed "Public Input". CITY OF WINTER SPRINGS,FLORIDA DRAFT MINUTES PLANNING AND ZONING BOARD/LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY REGULAR MEETING-JiJNE 4,2014 PAGE 5 OF 8 VOTE: VICE-CHAIRPERSON CASMAN: AYE BOARD MEMBER POE: AYE CHAIRPERSON HENDERSON: AYE BOARD MEMBER PHILLIPS: AYE MOTION CARRIED. PUBLIC HEARINGS 502. Community Development Department—Planning Division The Community Development Department — Planning Division Requests That The Planning And Zoning Board Consider Ordinance 2014-12, Which Proposes To Amend Section 20-431 Of The Code of Ordinances Regarding The Parking, Storage Or Maintenance Of Recreational Vehicles, Boats And Boat Trailers In Residential Zoning Districts. Board Member Bart Phillips stated, `Before we begin this, I would like to exclude myself from this discussion because I have a conflict." Mr. Howell presented this Agenda Item, and explained, "After you got your packets, Staff has had a chance to take a look at this Ordinance a little bit more in depth and there are some changes that we are going to propose, that Mr. Stevenson would like to go over with you." Following, Mr. Stevenson explained the following, "Subsequent to this Agenda Item being written, we've had additional conversations at the Staff level, involved the Police Department a little bit more, and also the City Manager. As I've told this group before we never want to write a section that is not enforceable in the field and we had some language that we felt was a little bit weak, shall we say, and maybe some that may have been regulated that we didn't want to regulate at this point." Mr. Stevenson referred to Ordinance Number 2014-12 and began, "Starting on page 2 of 4, under (1) Prohibitions: you have a section `£' that starts with `No recreational vehicle'. I need to interject a sentence prior to that addresses the situation that we have in a lot of cases today, and that sentence would say something to the following: `All RV's and Boat Trailers with or without a boat thereon parked or stored in a residentially zoned district shall be parked or stored behind the front building line.' That is the case that exists today. We are drawing a line between those that have a Permit, those that need to get a Permit, and those that don't need to get a Permit. 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